World Offshore Coiled Tubing Prospects of Operation Technology and Equipment
The application of coiled tubing drilling (Coiled Tubing ^^Drilling) technology began in the early 1990s. With the development of coiled tubing and supporting technologies and tools for coiled tubing drilling, coiled tubing drilling technology has been rapidly promoted. In recent years, the number of coiled tubing drilling has increased by more than 100 times, and its application fields have also been extended from vertical well drilling to horizontal well drilling, directional well drilling, and through-tubing drilling.
连续油管钻井（Coiled Tubing Drilling）技术的应用始于上世纪 90年代初°随着连续油管以及连续油 管钻井配套技术和工具的发展，连续油 管钻井技术得到了迅速推广。近年，连续油管钻井的数量增加了 100多倍，应用领域也从当初的直井钻井推广到水平井钻井、定向井钻井及过油管钻井等多个领域。
Status quo of typical offshore oil and gas technologies and equipment abroad
At present, the main application fields of coiled tubing drilling are: small hole vertical well and horizontal well negative pressure heavy drilling in soft formation, offshore platform drilling, through tubing drilling, deepening well drilling, exploration well drilling and environmental sensitive area drilling, etc. Coiled tubing drilling techniques include underbalanced drilling, balanced drilling and overbalanced drilling.
目前连续油管钻井的主要应用领域 有：软地层小井眼直井和水平井负压重 钻井、海上平台钻井、过油管钻井、加深井钻井、勘探井钻井和环境敏感区钻 井等。连续油管钻井的工艺方式有欠平 衡钻井、平衡钻井和过平衡钻井。
The main equipment for coiled tubing drilling operations includes coiled tubing operating machines, coiled tubing, downhole supporting tools, measurement while drilling systems, chlorine production vehicles and auxiliary equipment (such as well control systems, drilling fluid circulation and solids control systems, etc.). The following is a brief introduction to some of these devices.
连续油管钻井作业的主要设备包括 连续油管作业机、连续油管、井下配套工具、随钻测量系统、制氯车和辅助设 备（如井控系统、钻井液循环及固控系 统等）。下面就其中部分设备作简要介 绍。
Coiled Tubing Operating Machine Coiled Tubing Operating Machine is the main equipment for coiled tubing drilling operations (see Figure 1) 0 It is a mobile hydraulically driven coiled tubing lifting and lowering transportation equipment c. Pull out the oil well and wind the coiled tubing around the drum.
连续油管作业机 连续油管作业机 是连续油管钻井作业的主要设备（见图 1）0它是一种移动式液压驱动的连续 油管起下运输设备c作业时连续油管作 业机将连续油管下入、起出油井，并把起出的连续油管缠绕在滚筒上。
Coiled tubing operation equipment composition
1. Injection head. The injector head is a hydraulic drive unit (see Figure 2). When running the coiled tubing, it provides downward thrust, pushing the coiled tubing down the well: when raising the coiled tubing, it provides a pulling force, pulling the coiled tubing out of the well. The lifting and lowering speed of the coiled tubing is 0”~60m/min°. The key part in the injection head is the chain traction assembly, and its main structural type is the hydraulically actuated reverse rotation double chain clamping traction type tubing lifting and lowering mechanism. There are multiple central tightening cylinders, tensioning fluid pots T and accumulators on the injection head, which are used to clamp the coiled tubing, tension the chain and balance the pressure, respectively. The lance motor adopts a low-speed high-torque hydraulic motor. Motor brake, coiled tubing running speed, coiled tubing tensioning force and chain tensioning force are centrally controlled by the operator in the control room. The injection head is the key component of the coiled tubing drilling operation. The developer has developed a series of high-power injection heads according to the requirements of the coiled tubing drilling operation. Among them, the 5000 series injection head developed by the American Hydra Rig company has a maximum tensile force of 889.6KN and is suitable for the maximum continuous operation. The tubing size is 139.7mm.
2. Roller. The drum is the storage and transportation equipment for coiled tubing, with a pipe racker to evenly wind the coiled tubing (see Figure 3). The length of the coiled tubing that can be wound by the drum mainly depends on the outer diameter, width, and diameter of the drum core.
3. The hydraulic power unit provides the hydraulic power source for the entire coiled tubing unit, which is mainly composed of a hydraulic motor, a filter, an oil tank and a hydraulic valve (see Figure 4).
4. Control room. The control room is the place where operators monitor the injection head, tubing roller and blowout preventer and other equipment, and is the operation control center of the coiled tubing unit (see Figure 5) o On the operating table, there are various hydraulic and pneumatic components to operate and control Instruments, and engine operation control instruments, etc. The new coiled tubing machine is also equipped with a data acquisition system and a monitoring system, so it is the nerve center of the coiled tubing machine.
5. Injection head bracket. The injector bracket is used to withstand the load generated on the injector when the coiled tubing is tripped and to prevent the bending moment from being transferred from the injector to the blowout preventer and casing flange.
1.注入头。注入头是一套液压驱动 装置（见图2 ）。在下入连续油管时，它 提供向下的推力，推动连续油管下井： 在提升连续油管时，它提供拉力，将连 续油管从井中取出来。连续油管的起下 速度为0」~60m/min°注入头内的关键 部分是链条牵引总成，其主要结构型式 是液压駆动的反向旋转双链条夹持牵引 式油管起下机构。在注入头上有多个央 紧液缸、张紧液缶T和蓄能器，分别用于 夹紧连续油管、张紧链条和平衡压力。 駆动马达采用低速大扭矩液马达。马达刹车、连续油管起下速度、连续油管央 紧力和链条张紧力，由作业手在控制室 集中控制。注入头是连续油管钻井作业 的关键部件，开发商根据连续油管钻井 作业要求开发出一系列大功率注入头， 其中美国Hydra Rig公司开发的5000系列 注入头，最大拉力可达889.6KN,适用 最大连续油管尺寸为139.7mm。
2、 滚筒。滚筒是连续油管的储运 设备，带有排管器，用以均匀地缠绕连 续油管（见图3 ）。滚筒所能缠绕连续 油管的长度主要取决于滚筒的外径、宽 度、筒心的直径等。
3、 液压动力装置为整套连续油管机 组提供液压动力源，主要由液马达、滤清器、油箱和液压阙等组成（见图4 ）。
4、 控制室。控制室是操作入员监控 注入头、油管滚筒和防喷器等设备的场 所，是连续油管机组的操作控制中心（见 图5） 。在操作台上，有各种液压件和气 动件操作控制仪表，以及发动机操作控制 仪表等。在新型连续油管作业机中，还装 备有数据采集系统和监视系统，因此它是 连续油管作业机的神经中枢。
5、 注入头支架。注入头支架用于 承受连续油管在起下作业时注入头上所产生的载荷，防止弯曲力矩由注入头转移到防喷器和套管法兰上。
Downhole drilling tool assembly Downhole drilling tool assembly is the key to affecting the efficiency of coiled tubing drilling. According to different drilling techniques, coiled tubing drilling has different requirements for downhole BHA (see Figure 6) o
井下钻具组合井下钻具组合是影响连续油管钻井效率的关键。根据钻井 工艺的不同，连续油管钻井对井下钻具组合的要求也有所不同（见图6 ） 。
The auxiliary equipment is the same as that of conventional drilling. The auxiliary equipment for coiled tubing drilling includes well control system, drilling fluid circulation system and solids control system.
1. Well control system. Well control system is mainly composed of blowout preventer group, choke manifold and remote control system, gas-liquid separator and oil-water separator (see Figure 7) o Coiled tubing blowout preventer group consists of fully enclosed ram, shear gate Plate, copper plate with slips and coiled tubing ram. BOP is an indispensable function and safety equipment for coiled tubing operation, and the whole set of BOP is controlled and operated by hydraulic transmission. When drilling with coiled tubing equipment, in order to safely carry out underbalanced drilling, in addition to the coiled tubing blowout preventer, it is also necessary to install a downhole drill assembly blowout preventer to effectively seal the coiled tubing and downhole tools.
2. Drilling fluid circulation and solids control system. It is the same as conventional drilling, except that the coiled tubing is used for drilling, the radius is small, and the required amount of drilling fluid is small, so the volume of the drilling fluid circulation system is smaller than that required by conventional drilling. Solids control equipment includes shakers, desanders, desilters and centrifuges. The power of the drilling pump should meet the requirements of the downhole drilling fluid motor and wellbore cleaning. Because the drilling fluid must pass through the entire coiled tubing string to reach the bottom of the well, and the pressure loss in the part of the coiled tubing wound around the drum is large, so choose This must be taken into account when pumping.
辅助设备与常规钻井相同，连续 油管钻井辅助设备包括井控系统、钻井 液循环系统和固控系统。
1.井控系统。井控系统主要由防 喷器组、节流管汇及遥控系统、气液分离器和油水分离器组成（见图7 ） .连 续油管防喷器组由全封闭式闸板、剪切 式闸板、带卡瓦铜板和连续油管闸板组成。防喷器是连续油管作业不可缺少的 功能和安全设备，整套防喷器组由液压 传动控制和操作。用连续油管作业装置 钻井时，为安全地进行欠平衡钻井，除 连续油管防喷器外，还需安装井下钻具 组合防喷器，以有效密封连续油管和井下工具。
2、钻井液循环及固控系统。与常 规钻井相同，只是用连续油管钻井,半径小，所需钻井液量少，因此钻井液循 环系统的容积比常规钻井所要求的小。 固控设备包括振动筛、除砂器、除泥器 和离心机。钻井泵的功率应满足井下钻 井液马达和清洗井眼的要求O因钻井 液要通过整个连续油管柱才能到达井 底,而绕在滚筒上的那部分连续油管中的压力损失较大，故选择泵压时必须考虑这一点。
Overseas Offshore Oil and Gas Development Coiled Tubing Technology Development Trend
In order to further reduce the cost of offshore oil operations
Deeply tap the potential of existing coiled tubing operation technologies (mainly coiled tubing sand flushing, drilling bridge plugs, gas lift, wax removal, drainage and acid squeeze, and cooperative testing), focusing on the development of through-the-tubing (TTS) technology, Focused on through-tubing fracturing and through-tubing sidetracking.
对现有连续油管作业技术（主要有连续 油管冲砂洗井、钻桥塞、气举、清蜡、 排液挤酸和配合测试等技术）进行深入 挖潜，重点发展过油管（TTS ）技术， 在过油管压裂和过油管側钻方面进行重 点研究。
Coiled tubing fracturing technology is aimed at multi-stage layered fracturing and lateral well fracturing required for layered oil reservoirs and discontinuous oil reservoirs. Coiled tubing fracturing technology is used to selectively fill with proppant, so as to realize in-operation fracturing. Effectively carry out the fracturing operation of marginal oil reservoirs within the allowable range of costs, and improve the economic development effect of oil reservoirs. On the basis of coiled tubing fracturing trucks, focus on low-friction and non-damaging fracturing fluids suitable for coiled tubing fracturing, proppant research, supporting tools for construction operations, and research on process technology to form low-cost, high-efficiency fracturing. Process technology
连续油管压裂技术针对层状油藏、不连续油藏等需要进行的多级分层 压裂以及分支井压裂，利用连续油管压 裂技术，有选择性地进行支撑剂填充， 实现在作业费用允许范围内有效地进行 边际油藏斥裂作业，提高油藏经济开发效果。在连续油管压裂车的基础上，重 点开展适用于连续油管压裂的低摩阻无 损害压裂液、支撑剂研究和施工作业配 套工具、工艺技术研究，形成低成本、 高效益的压裂工艺技术
Coiled tubing sidetracking technology is aimed at reproducing production of wells with damaged casings, aiming at using coiled tubing for sidetracking in old wells. Coiled tubing sidetracking vehicles are equipped with downhole power drilling tools or electric coiled tubing drilling systems, and supporting tools are developed to carry out continuous drilling. The comprehensive supporting technology research of tubing sidetracking has formed a low-cost sidetracking technology.
连续油管側钻技术针对套管损坏井复产需求，以应用连续油管进行老 井侧钻为目标，连续油管侧钻车，配 套井下动力钻具或电动连续管钻井系统，研制配套工具，开展连续油管侧 钻综合配套技术研究，形成低成本的侧钻工艺技术。
China Offshore Oil and Gas Development Coiled Tubing Technology Development Suggestions
The application of coiled tubing technology for offshore workover operations is not limited by water depth, but the main limitation is the length of coiled tubing. That is to say, the application of coiled tubing for workover can be performed in shallow water or deep water. The main reasons that affect the wide application of coiled tubing in China are that there are no R&D institutions, no manufacturing enterprises, lack of technical support and lack of understanding of coiled tubing technology. In order to further reduce the cost of development operations in offshore workover operations, it is a trend to apply coiled tubing for workover operations. Therefore, vigorously developing coiled tubing workover technology has far-reaching significance for my country's offshore oil well workover operations. EQ
应用连续油管技术进行海上修井作 业，不受水深的限制，其主要的限制 是连续油管的长度。也就是说应用连 续油管进行修井作业绩可在浅海进行 也可在深水进行。影响连续油管在国 内广泛应用的主要原因是国内没有研 发机构，无制造企业，技术不配套以 及对连续油管技术认识不瞥。为了在 海上修井作业中进一步降低开发作业 成本，应用连续管逬行修井作业是一 种趋势。因此大力发展连续油管修井 作业技术，对我国海上油井修井作业 具有深远的意义。
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