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Total: Leading Technology Makes Huge Success

Total is one of the world's major oil and gas corporations with activities in more than 130 countries spanning all the aspects of the petroleum industry. 1L in also the first- rank player in chemicals and has interests in the coal-mining and power generation sectors, in addition, Total is also helping to secure the future of energy through its commitment to developing renewable energies such as solar power and marine energy and second-generation biofuels.

As the first international oil & gas company to undertake offshore exploration and to produce oflshore oil in China in 1980s, Total has been present in the country for about 30 years through its activities of exploration and production, gas and power, refining and marketing, and chemicals. Today, Total employs more than 4,300 people locally and owns more than 30 companies in China.

The secret of Total's success lies in its cutting-edge technologies. This article will explore the major technology expertise of Total, from which we may find "Total's way to success.

「首达尔是世界最主要的石油天然气集团之一,业务遍及全球130多个国 家,涵盖整个石油行业产业链。道达尔还 是全球一流的化工生产商之一,同时涉足 煤炭开釆与发电业务。作为最早开始中 国海上油气勘探和海上石油生产的外国 石油公司,道达尔在中国开展业务已近 30年,拥有30多家合资或全资公司,员 工超过4,300人。经营业务包括勘探与生 产、天然气与电力、炼油与销隹、以及化工产品.

道达尔之所以能成就其在石油天然气 行业的帝国基业,秘密就在于其不断研发实 践、始终处于国际领先地位的技术C探寻道 达尔布勘探开发领域的主要技术发展方向, 或许是我们找到其成功的一条捷径.

Innovations to open up the deep offshore

The offshore zone as a whole contains 23% of the global reserves of liquid hydrocarbons and 42% of the gas, but the deep offshore only holds 4% and 3% respectively. However, recent deep offshore discoveries show that this zone still has significant potential. particularly for (he oil majors, which alone have mastered the highly sophisticated technologies required to identify and especially valorise these resources.

依靠技术创新 开发深海资源

据悉,海上液态煙储量占全球总资源 量的23%,天然气则占42%:而深海则 分别仅占4%和3%。尽管如此,近期的 深海发现表明,深海颇有潜力可挖,尤其 是对于已掌握了先进技术、有能力寻找这 些资滤、利用这些资源的石油巨头来说史 是如此.

Total pioneered “conventional” offshore techniques and is still a leader in high- tech deep-water solutions, working in water depths of over 500 meters and up to 3300 meters below sea level. The Group is currently the leading deep offshore operator in West Afnea. In 2001, Total achieved a world first when it started producing Angela5 s Girassol Held (Block 17) al a depth of 140() meters. In the Gulf of Mexico, Total has scored two technical firsts. 2002 saw the inauguration of the Canyon Express subsea multiphase gas transport system, 92 kilometers long and in 2200 meters of water, built tu export to shore the production from three fields operated by three different companies. And in 2003, Total set up the Matterhorn platform, the world5s first mini- TLP with surface wellheads in water 850 meters deep.

道达尔的常规海洋工程技术处于世 界领先地位,在深水技术方面也名列前 茅,工作水深可达海平面以下500米到 3000米以下。目前,道达尔集团正主持 西非的海上作业。2001年,道达尔开 采安哥拉位于水下1400米的Girassol 17号区块),并由此创下了世界纪 录。在墨西哥湾,道达尔创下了两项卅界 纪录。2002年,全长92千米、水深2200 米的Canyon Express海底多相输气系统 开通,用于将3家公司经营的3个气田的 天然气输送到地面。2003年,道达尔建造了Matterhorn平台,这是全球首座并 口位于水下850米处的小型张力腿平台 (TLP

With their high drilling costs and considerable investment required for development, deep offshore projects raise the stakes. The key principle is to minimise the number of wells and maximise the reserves drained by each one. A key iaclur in this is to achieve the best reservoir characterisation possible. Another is the now systematic use of techniques to accurately position extended reach wells. A ease in point here is Dalia (Angola), which also uses the geosteeritig technique developed as part of the Sismagc pachage and already used on Jasmim.

由于深海项目的钻井成本高、投入大且风险也大,所以问题的关键是尽可能 地减少钻井数坦.同时最大限度地提高每口井的产量°实现这个目标的重要途径之 一就是获取尽可能准确的储层特性资料。 另一个途径则是系统地采用相关技术,准确定位大位移井。道达尔公司在安哥拉的 Dalia项目中采用了地质导向技术,作为 Sismage系列技术的组成部分,该技术已 Jasmim油田得到了应用.

Using hub-and-satellite architectures

In order io reduce the invcslmcnt required, deep offshore developments now use central floating productn platforms to which subsea satellites can be connected as they arc developed. This is the concept chosen by Total to develop the 15 discoveries already made on Block 17 in Angola. This means that the Girassol FPSO, which started handling production from Jasmim in 2003 and will be connected to Rosa in 2(M)7, can continue to operate at full capacity.

采用中央平台 ——卫星油井技术

目前,为了减少投资,深海油田开 发一般釆用中心浮式采油平台,将它与海 底的卫星油井相连。道达尔在开发安哥拉 17号区块的1 5处发现时就采用了这种方 法。2003年道达尔在开发Jasmim油田时 建造的Girassol浮式釆油平台,将与2007 年投产的Rosa油田相连,由此可以实现 该平台的持续全面运行.

Yet production systems based on a central hub imply a number of technological obstacles. Complex and extended-reach wells have to be drilled to reach reservoir zones far from ihc wellhead. The long tieback distances between subsea wellheads and the production platform also pose critical problems as regards the flow of multiphase production at low temperatures. Long distance pipe transport of untreated effluents (oil, gas and water) in temperatures of around 4°C can lead to the formation of hydrate and paraffin deposits that can block flowlines and valves. At the same time, il can be very expensive to step in to solve the problem. So it is imperative to keep flowlines and risers within very strict temperature and pressure ranges and, in the event of a production shutdown (whether scheduled or unexpected), to slow the cool-down rale until chemical safeguard measures can be implemented. A number of innovative thermal insulation solutions arc now being used to pipe oil along the seabed over distances of 25 to 30 kilometers. New insulation materials, such as gels, arc being developed to improve the pcrinrmancc of the pipe-in-pipe technology used by Total for GirassoL Thermal constraints on the Dalia project arc even lighter. Oil that comes out of seabed wellheads at 50P must still be above 34P when it reaches the FPSO and must not tall below 2l^C in the flowlines in the event of a production shutdown. To insulate the 35 kilometers of flowlines laid on the seabed, Total selected an insulating material originally developed fbr lhe NASA space programme. Dalia also represents the first application of integrated production bundle (IPB) technology, with eight flexible risers, each 1650 meter long and weighing 800 tonnes, carrying the produced fluids up to the FPSO.

但是,为了开发远离井口的油气藏, 需钻复杂的大位移井。水下井口与生产平 台间的长距离管线对于油井生产的低温多 相流来说也会造成困难°在温度为4P 条件下,长距离输送未経处理的气、油、 水混合物,会形成水合物和石蜡沉积, 堵塞出油管线和阙门。这种情况必须让 管线和导管保持在一定的温度和压力范 围内。一旦停止生产(无论是意外事故 还是计划安排),则需减缓其冷却的速 度,以便争取时间能采取相应的化学处 理措施。目前已有了保温绝缘创新技术 并已应用于25-30千米长的水下输油管 线。新的凝胶等绝缘材料已得到研发, 用于改逬道达尔Girassol项目中管中管 技术的性能。Dalia项目的温度要求则更 高:来自水下井口的原油温度为50T, 在抵达浮式采油平台时也应保持在34P 以上,关井时温度也不得低于21^o 为了保持35千米长的海底管线的温度, 道达尔选用了最初为美国航空航天局太 空计划所研发的材料,还首次采用了 生产管束开采(integrated production bundle )集成技术。

Pazflor项目的主要问题布于,回輸距 离过长(达60千米),原油性质存在差 畀(来自Perpetua和Zinia油田的Miocene e「a原油比Dalia油田的原油粘植,且自 然产能低,开釆初期就需要进行人工举 升)。对此,道达尔欲与亜界其他公司 合作,开发能实现在水下1000米深处长 期、安全工作的气液分离技术°这项技术 和菜床缩系统相结合,是未来的技术发展 方向。

Tapping deeply buried reservoirs

Exploration and production of deeply buried geological layers is a recent advance. Total has already drilled an exploration well to a depth of 6900 meters, bul it is generally difficult to explore targets lying deeper than 4000 deviated well with a horizontal length (or step-out) of 4000 meters. This was an all-time record fbr the North Sea.

开发深层 高温高压油气藏

深层勘探开发是道达尔近期的一个发展方向。在道达尔所钻的探井中,最深的超过6900米。2001年,道达尔在经过10年大力研发的基础上,成功地开采了 北海的Elgin-Franklin油用,该油田的储 层位于海底以下5000米处,压力达1100 巴,温度高达190^0此后,道达尔锐意 进取,于2006年采用斜井技术,钻出水平位移4000米,开发了邻近的Glenelg 气咳(埋深5600米,压力1130巴,温度 200^ ),创下了北海历史上开发的最深纪录.

Two of the particular di faculties involved in producing HP-HT reservoirs arc the sharp changes in pressure from one layer to the next and the narrow Tnud weight window ranges the drillers have to respect to guarantee the integrity of the layers through which they arc drilling and thus avoid the risk of eruption (or blow-out). This is made even harder by the lad that, at temperatures of over 170°C, electronic equipment has a very limited working life. So drillers have to do without the usual electronic look such as measuring while drilling (MWD) and logging while drilling (LWD). This means the only help they get during drilling is data from mud To solve this problem, Total has teamed up with other industry partners to develop a new generation of logging tools designed for use at high temperatures. Research (cams have also taken a huge step forward with new types of drilling mud specifically designed for HP-HT drilling operations. The lechniquc, called stress caging, uses special mud to strengthen the walls of a well as soon as the first small fractures appear, which means that drilling can continue with dense muds without the risk of major losses.

Valorising heavy crudes

The heavy and extremely viscous oil is found in many regions of the world-thc Middle East, Russia, Mexico and Brazil* but most of it is located in Canada (the province of Alberta) and Venezuela (the Orinoco Belt). The exceptional size of these accumulations calls for large- scale industrial projects entailing huge investments, largely because they demand

开釆高温高压油藏所面临的两个主 要难点,一是层间压力的变化巨大,二是难于把握钻井液油密度的变化范围。为了防止井喷,钻井时必须综合考虑以上两个方面的问题.当温度超过1701时,由于电子设备在高温条件下的使用寿命非常有限,因此,防止井喷就非常困难c在此情况下,钻井人员就可能无法使用象随钻测 量(MWD )和随钻测井(LWD )等常用 工具,只能通过钻井液录井所获得的数据去开展工作.

为了解决这一难题,道达尔与业界其 他伙伴成立了研究小组,合作开发新型高温测井工具.研究小组还在高温高压钻井 用钻井液的研究上取得了长足进展.该技术又称应力井壁技术,当井壁上出现微小 裂缝时,技术人员就立即使用一种特制的泥浆强化井壁,以避免发生井漏,从而可以继续采用高密度钻井液钻井.


全球最富含重油的地区当属加窜大 的阿尔伯达省和委内瑞拉的奥里诺科重 油带c丰富的油气资源及其特殊的技术要求,意味着大型工业项目的上马和巨额资金的投入°目前,道达尔公司已介 入上述两地的重油开发C•界大型車油 项目之奥里诺科重油带的Sincor

项目,因采用了 “冷采”技术而成为了业界重油开釆的里程碑°奥里诺科的原 油在油藏温度下(即55P左右)流动迟缓,但在特定条件下也能流向生产井。 研发小组全力攻关,力争改变采收率低 10%的现状c同时,下游研发小组正密切关注一种被称为渣油加氢解法的 新的炼油方法,以取代目前在Sincor使用的延迟焦化工艺.

Athabasca地区的重油(或沥青)基 本上以固态形式存在于储层中,须対其进行加热或稀释处理才能流入生产井。 为此,道达尔的研究小组已在研发一种 被称为蒸汽重力辅助泄油(SAGD )的 “热"技术。运用该技术,可同时钻 两口上、下排列的水平井,井距约为3-5米。注入上部井的蒸汽,在地层中 扩散并加热沥青,受热的沥青则受重力 作用,流向下部的生产井。在Surmont 展的先导试验效果良好,最终采收率有 望达到30%。道达尔与业界的合作伙伴 共同研制了可抵御高温的井下泵(釆用 无合成橡胶的全金属密封材料),这些经久耐用的井下泵将大大地提高油井的产能.



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Keywords关键词: 领先技术;技术创新;深海资源;卫星油井技术;高温高压油气藏;挖掘重油的价值

Leading technology; technological innovation; deep sea resources; satellite oil well

technology; high temperature and high pressure oil and gas reservoirs; mining the value of  heavy oil

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Poster发布人:    Clark Guo, CCSC Technology, Shanghai, China, 2022.06           Youtube: Clarkwellhead  

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