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Three Inspirations of BP Oil Spill to China
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Three Inspirations of BP Oil Spill to China

Three Inspirations of BP Oil Spill to China

BP漏油对中国的三大启示

 

Liu Renhuan / College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Huadong)

刘仁桓/中国石油大学(华东)机电工程学院

 

Revelation 1: Strengthen safety awareness and establish safety mechanism

启示1: 强化安全意识,建立安全机制

At present, including well control technology, oil drilling technology and equipment have developed to a high level, the key is to strictly comply with and operate safely. If the operation is strictly in accordance with the design and normal process flow, the probability of such a large accident would have been very small. It can be said that the huge blowout accident in the Gulf of Mexico is to a large extent a problem of safety production supervision and management, which has a lot to do with the safety awareness and sense of responsibility of the operators. The development of deep water oil and gas fields in my country has just kicked off. In order to avoid major accidents, it is necessary to strengthen safety awareness and establish safety mechanisms.

目前包括井控技术在内,石油钻井技术和设备已经发展到很高水平,关键是要严格遵守、安全操作。如果严格按照设计和正常的工艺流程操作,发生这么大事故的概率原本非常微小。可以说,墨西哥湾的特大井喷事故在很大程度上是安全生产监督管理的问题,与作业者的安全意识和责任心有很大关系。我国深水油气田开发刚刚拉开序幕,为了避免重大事故的出现,必须要强化安全意识,建立安全机制。

The first is the attention of the state. Relevant systems and regulations should be established and improved to ensure that the regulatory authorities have laws to abide by and evidence to check. The competent authorities and the local government should strengthen the supervision of oil exploration companies, and key equipment must be regularly inspected to ensure that various safety production measures can be strictly implemented, and to eliminate hidden dangers that can induce sudden pollution disasters.

首先是国家的重视,应建立和完善相关制度和法规,确保监管部门有法可依、有据可查。主管部门和当地政府要加大对石油开采公司的监管力度,关键设备必须定期检验,确保各项安全生产措施能够严格落实到位,消除能够诱发突发污染灾害事件的隐患。

The second is the attention of the enterprise and the awareness of the employees. Due to the lag of national regulations, oil companies should comprehensively and deeply consider all production links, and effectively implement the concept and measures of safe production into production. It is also necessary to carry out necessary safety training and information, so that employees can always be aware of the non-essential safety, and strictly operate procedures to avoid accidents from the root cause. At the same time, we should vigorously strengthen the implementation of safety production measures, eliminate hidden safety hazards through self-inspection and self-inspection, and strictly prevent the occurrence of sudden oil spill pollution accidents.

其次是企业重视,员工认识。由于国家法规有一定的滞后性,所以石油公司应全面、深入地考虑各生产环节,切实将安全生产理念和措施落实到生产中。还要进行必要的安全培训和宜传,使员工能够时刻意识到安全的非要性,严格操作程序,从根源上避免事故发生。同时,应大力加强安全生产措施的落实,通过自检、自查,排除安全隐患,严防突发石油泄油污染事故的发生。

Once again, it is necessary to prepare an emergency plan for dealing with pollution accidents and carry out comprehensive drills. Once a pollution accident occurs, relevant units and personnel must cooperate closely, respond in a timely manner, and take measures to quickly control oil spills and polluted areas, eliminate oil pollution as soon as possible, and remove oil spills. The impact of pollution incidents is minimized.

再次是做好应对污染事故的应急预案,开展全面演练,一旦污染事故发生,相关单位和人员必须密切配合、及时应对,采取措施,迅速控制石油泄漏和污染区域,尽快消除石油污染,将石油泄漏污染事件的影响降到最低。

Finally, establish the relevant evaluation system. Comprehensively consider the impact of oil exploitation on marine organisms, marine water bodies, atmosphere, geology and other aspects, improve the environmental impact assessment system and ecological environment risk assessment system for offshore oil and gas development projects, and practicably evaluate the assessment of pollution accidents on the ecological environment.

最后是建立相关的评价体系。综合考虑石油开采对海洋生物、海洋水体、大气、地质等各方面的影响,完善海上油气开发工程环境影响评价制度和生态环境风险评价体系,切实可行地评估污染事故对生态环境的评价。

 

Enlightenment 2: Increase scientific research efforts to promote technical reserves and equipment development

启示2:加大科研力度,促进技术储备和装备开发

A major cause of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was a set of 450-ton blowout preventers that failed to activate when they needed to be activated. As the last barrier to prevent oil spills, blowout preventers are installed at the wellhead to close the wellhead after an oil spill occurs. But Deep water Horizon's blowout preventers did not activate properly. And the automatic backup system and BP's use of underwater robots after the fact didn't work either. This equipment, which seems to have multiple security guarantees, is still not perfect. In fact, similar failures have occurred many times.

墨西哥湾漏油事件的重要原因是一组450吨重的防喷器在需要激活的时候未能激活。作为防止漏油的最后一道屏障,防喷器安装在井口处,在发生漏油后关闭井口。但“深水地平线”的防喷器并未正常启动。而且自动备用系统以及事后BP公司用水下机器人也未能奏效。这个看似有多重安全保障的设备还是不够完善,其实类似的故障也多次出现。

Since deep-sea technology is a very complex technology with a very wide coverage, currently no country or company can completely monopolize all deep-sea technologies. This requires our country and some oil companies to increase scientific research efforts to promote technical reserves and equipment development.

由于深海技术是非常复杂的技术,覆盖而非常广,目前没有一个国家或公司可以完全独揽所有的深海技术。这就需要我们国家和一些石油公司加大科研力度,促进技术储备和装备开发。

The first is to strengthen the research on oil drilling and related technologies. Although the country's development plan has invested a lot of money in offshore oil drilling, the overall investment is still not enough, and it is necessary to increase investment in research and development of key technologies and equipment. Due to the huge cost of deep-sea oil drilling, the application of advanced technology and equipment can achieve the goal of safety and economy.

首先是加强石油钻采及相关技术研究。尽管国家的发展规划已经对海洋中石油钻采投入大量资金,但整体投入还是不够,还应加大对关键技术和设备的研发投入。由于深海石油钻井花费巨大,应用先进的技术和装备可以实现安全经济的目标。

Followed by the rational use of resources, make good technical reserves. There are a large number of scientific research institutes and research institutions in my country, as well as many colleges and universities that carry out scientific research work, improve the project approval system, use resources reasonably and effectively, and carry out a wide range of research work, including some basic research work. Research is combined to promote the generation of new technologies and the improvement of equipment. In addition, the acceptance and assessment of the project should be based on the technical goals, and the scientific research should be continued in depth.

其次是合理利用资源,作好技术储备。我国有大量的科研院所和研究机构,还有众多高校都开展科学研究工作,改进项目审批制度,合理有效地利用资源,开展广泛的研究工作,包括一些基础的研究工作,把工程应用和基础研究相互结合,促进新技术产生和装备的改进。另外,项目的验收和考核应以技术目标为根本,把科学研究深入延续起来。

The third is to strengthen cooperation and exchanges, including domestic and international cooperation and exchanges. There are still many domestic project exchanges, but there are relatively few participants. Due to the complexity of deep-sea technology, there are still many difficult problems. If more people participate and carry out extensive cooperation, it can play the role of "stones in other mountains". At present, deep-sea drilling and mining technology is mainly monopolized by developed countries. These countries should assume their own responsibilities, carry out extensive cooperation, and work with other countries to improve deep-sea drilling and mining technology to avoid such a disaster.

再次是要加强合作与交流,包括国内和国际的合作交流。国内项目交流还是比较多的,但参与人员相对较少,由于深海技术的复杂性,难点问题还是很多。如果让更多人员参与,开展广泛的合作,就可以起到“他山之石”的作用。目前深海钻采技术主要是发达国家垄断,这些国家应该承担自己的责任,开展广泛的合作,与其他国家一起完善深海钻采技术,避免出现这样的灾难。

 

Revelation 3: Call for environmental awareness and promote the development of environmental protection industry

启示3:呼唤环保意识,促进环保工业的发展

The oil spill caused all kinds of creatures in the accident waters to suffer "extinct disaster" and almost destroyed the entire fishing industry and fishermen's livelihood on the southern coast of the United States. And BP will face the danger of huge indemnity and closure. While pursuing economic interests, enterprises must pay attention to environmental protection, and environmental protection technology and environmental protection industry should also be vigorously developed.

这起漏油事故使出事海域的各类生物遭遇“灭顶之灾”,几乎毁了美国南部海岸的整个渔业及渔民生计。而BP公司将面临着巨额赔款、关门倒闭的危险。企业在追求经济利益的同时,必须要重视环保,环保技术和环保工业也应该得到大力发展。

First, policies and systems must be in place. Because the environmental industry is usually not-for-profit or remedial, it often makes business operations difficult. This requires policy support from the state. On the one hand, there is policy support for environmental protection enterprises. On the other hand, technical standards for enterprises that may cause pollution are formulated and strictly enforced.

首先,政策和制度要到位。由于环保工业通常是非盈利的或补救性的,往往使企业运营困难。这就需要国家的政策支持,一方面有对环保企业的政策支持,另一方面,制定对可能造成污染企业的技术标准,并严格执行。

Second, strengthen the research and development of marine environmental protection technology. Marine environmental protection technologies include a wide range of technologies, such as oil spill clean-up technologies, including shoreline and water confinement anti-fouling measures, shoreline and water oil recovery equipment and technologies, and underwater clean-up measures. For tens of thousands of barrels of crude oil spills per day, the oil pollution removal ships have insufficient processing capacity, and the research on efficient oil recovery and pollution removal technology is very necessary to deal with major accidents. In addition, the treatment technology of wastewater and sludge from offshore oil exploitation also needs to be further studied.

其次,加强海洋环保技术的研发。海洋环保技术包括很广,如石油泄漏的清污技术,包括岸线和水上围油防污措施、岸线和水上收油设备和技术、水下清污措施等。对于每天成千上万桶的原油泄漏量,清除油污船只处理能力不足,高效的收油清污技术的研究对于应对重大事故是非常必要的。另外,海洋石油开采的废水、污泥的处理技术也须进一步研究。

The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an ecological disaster. The impact is comprehensive, and reflection should also be comprehensive. This profound lesson has sounded the alarm for us. It can be seen from this incident that if there is no mature technology for protection and lack of awareness of risks and dangers, the losses and harms caused may be irreversible or even fatal. The development and utilization of deep-sea oil and gas resources will continue, and the safety level will also be improved. We should deeply reflect on it to avoid such a disaster from happening again. (Note: Some opinions in this article are taken from the Internet and some expert comments, without citing the source.)

墨西哥湾漏油事件是一场生态灾难,影响是全方位的,反思也应全方位,这次深刻的教训为我们敲响了警钟。从这次事件可以看到,如果没有成熟的技术做保障,缺乏风险忧患意识,造成的损失和危害可能是无法挽回的,甚至是致命的。深海油气资源的开发利用还要继续,安全等级也会提高,我们应从中深刻反省,避免再次出现这样的灾难。(注:本文中的一些观点摘自网络和一些专家的评论,未引用出处。)

 

Other Voices:

其他声音:

National Energy Board

国家能源局

One of the preventive measures is to formulate a regular self-inspection and self-inspection mechanism for production facilities and equipment. The well control equipment for drilling, completion and cementing operations needs to be regularly inspected, and the procedures and equipment to prevent blowouts need to be comprehensively evaluated regularly to eliminate hidden dangers and prevent problems before they occur.

防范措施之一,制定生产设施、设备定期自检、自查机制。对钻井、完井、固井作业的井控设备需定期进行专项检查,对防止井喷的程序和设备需定期进行全面评估,排除隐患,做到防患于未然。

The second preventive measure is to study the research and development of deep-water diving equipment, deep-water accident rescue technology, and deep-water accident solutions as major topics, and to communicate and cooperate with the world's leading oil companies to form internationally accepted effective solutions as soon as possible.

防范措施之二,需对深水潜水装备研发、深水事故救援技术、深水事故解决方案等作为重大课题进行研究,并与世界领先的石油公司进行交流与合作,尽快形成国际通行的有效解决措施。

 

Cui Xuezheng Professor, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China)

崔学政 中国石油大学(华东)机电工程学院教授

From this oil spill, it can be seen that the world is eager to exploit deep water oil and gas, but the understanding of its catastrophic accident is not enough. At present, the development of mining technology is fast, but the safety guarantee technology is still lagging behind. Oil production accidents at sea are generally very difficult to deal with. If there is no emergency plan, the estimated oil spill amount is wrong, and once an oil spill occurs, it is difficult to imagine the extent of the disaster. Therefore, the world should first carefully study which links will have accidents, how to deal with them, come up with emergency plans and develop relevant equipment, and then consider mining.

由此次漏油事件可知,全球急于开采深水油气,但对其灾难性事故认识不够;目前开采技术发展快,但安全保障技术仍显落后。海上发生采油事故,一般处理难度很大。如果没有应急预案,漏油量估计有误,一旦发生漏油,很难想象其灾害程度。所以,全球应当先好好研究哪些环节会出现事故,如何应对,拿出应急预案并研发相关设备,然后再考虑开采。

The oil spill also reminds the world that the exploitation of combustible ice must not be carried out blindly, otherwise the disaster will be immeasurable. For our country, it is a serious warning, which should be attached great importance to, and then study relevant measures as soon as possible.

此次漏油事件也提醒全球,开采可燃冰万万不可盲目进行,否则灾难无法估量。对我国来说,是一个严峻的警示,应高度重视,进而抓紧研究相关措施。

 

Huang Weiping, Professor, School of Engineering, Ocean University of China

黄维平 中国海洋大学工程学院教授

This accident exposed some deficiencies in engineering equipment: 1. An explosion occurred, indicating that there were loopholes in the explosion-proof measures on the platform. Usually a blowout would cause a fire, but the explosion could be avoided. Therefore, the explosion-proof design of the mechanical and electrical equipment of the drilling platform should be raised to a higher standard. 2. The stability design of the drilling platform should take into account the factors of explosion, and the water surface bulkhead should improve the waterproof standard. 3. The drilling riser shall be provided with a surface blowout preventer.

这次事故暴露出工程装备方面的一些不足:1.发生了爆炸,说明平台上的防爆措施有漏洞,通常井喷会引起火灾,但爆炸是可以避免的。因此,钻井平台的机械和电器装备的防爆设计应提高标准。2.钻井平台的稳性设计应考虑到爆炸的因素,水面舱壁应提高防瀑标准。3.钻井立管应设置水面防喷器。

Deep water oil and gas development in my country should learn the lessons of this accident. While actively developing, we must treat every development project, and even every specific drilling project, with great care. First of all, it is necessary to conduct a rigorous review of the opening plan, and secondly, to strengthen the research on deep-water development equipment, so as to be able to conduct a concrete and substantive review of the capabilities and equipment of foreign contractors.

我国深水油气开发应吸取这次事故的教训,在积极开发的同时,一定要非常谨慎地对待每一个开发项目,甚至每一个具体的钻井工程。首先要对开方案进行严格审查,其次要加强深水开发装备的研究,以便能够对国外承包商的能力和装备进行具体实质性的审查。

Oil companies, lessors and operators should fully demonstrate the development plan according to the properties of oil and gas fields (reservoir pressure, temperature, natural gas content and chemical properties of oil and gas, etc.), and take corresponding preventive measures. The government should strengthen the development of deep water oil and gas fields. If necessary, experts organized by the government will demonstrate the development plan before development, put forward regulatory opinions, and have the right to stop the development. At present, the gap between my country and the United States is mainly due to the lack of engineering experience, and it still only stays in theoretical and laboratory research. In the future, it is necessary to conduct research on simulated engineering projects to obtain practical engineering experience to find problems and conduct in-depth and meticulous research to achieve breakthroughs. .

油公司、租赁方和作业方应根据油气田的性质(油藏压力、温度,天然气含量和油气的化学性质等)对开发方案进行充分论证,并作出相应的防范措施,政府应加强对深水油气田开发的安全监督,必要时,开发前由政府组织专家对开发方案进行论证,提出监管意见,并有权叫停开发。目前我国与美国的差距主要是缺乏工程经验,仍仅仅停留在理论和实验室研究,今后应作模拟工程项目的研究,取得实际的工程经验,以发现问题,进行深入细致的研究,从而取得突破。

 

CNPC Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd.

中国石油集团海洋工程有限公司

By discussing the accident, the marine engineering company believes that the most fundamental way and method to prevent such incidents is to build a team with strict work style, strict discipline and excellent technology, and establish a set of safety and environmental protection with strict management, in place measures and continuous improvement. Management mechanism and a management system with perfect system, clear process and effective control.

通过对事故进行讨论,海洋工程公司认为杜绝此类事件发生最根本的途径和方法是建设一支作风严谨、纪律严明、技术过硬的队伍,建立一套管理严格、措施到位、持续改进的安全环保管理机制和一个制度完善、流程清晰、控制有效的管理体系。

 

Tu Xuexiang Petroleum Technology Expert

涂学翔 石油技术专家

The world should learn from the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, operators should strictly follow the design and normal operation procedures, platform equipment suppliers should update the current relevant key equipment and systems, and equipment manufacturers should design and develop backup systems for related products. , oil companies, lessors, operators and the government should strengthen communication to avoid or eliminate the occurrence of offshore platform safety accidents from the source.

全球应以墨西哥湾漏油事件为鉴,作业方应严格遵循设计和正常操作流程作业,平台设备供应商应更新换代目前相关关键设备和系统,装备制造企业应设计研发相关产品的备用系统,此外,油公司、租赁方、作业方及政府四者之间应加强沟通,从源头上避免或消除海洋平台安全事故的发生。

The revelation of the oil spill to China is that, like the country's response to earthquake/tsunami disasters, it is necessary to build and form a complete emergency response system including emergency plans, emergency command centers, emergency information systems and emergency response teams. In solving similar accidents that may occur in the future, China should formulate relevant laws and regulations, build relevant emergency and rescue systems, including equipment and material reserves, strengthen cooperation with the military/local government, and establish a foundation to ensure that the Affected companies and the interests of the public, etc., and improve the ability to respond to serious marine emergencies.

此次漏油事件对中国的启示是,与国家应对地震/海啸灾害一样,需要建设和形成包括应急预案、应急指挥中心、应急信息系统和应急响应队伍在内的一套完整的应急体系。在解决今后可能出现的类似事故方面,中国应该从制订相关法规,建设相关的应急系统和救援系统,包括装备和物资的储备,加强与军队/当地政府的协作,并成立基金会以保障受其影响的公司和民众的利益等,提高应对严重的海上突发事故的能力。

 

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Keywords关键词:安全意识,安全机制,工艺流程,监督管理,安全培训,安全隐患,环境影响评价制度,生态环境风险评价体系,技术储备,深海技术,防污措施,深水事故救援技术,应急预案,水面防喷器,备用系统,救援系统.

Safety awareness, safety mechanism, technological process, supervision and management, safety training, potential safety hazards, environmental impact assessment system, ecological environment risk assessment system, technical reserve, deep-sea technology, anti-fouling measures, deep-water accident rescue technology, emergency plan, water surface blowout prevention device, backup system, rescue system.

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