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Thoughts and Suggestions on the Self-development and Strengthening of Offshore Oil and Gas Equipment—Main equipment required for offshore oil and gas development (Part 1)
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Thoughts and Suggestions on the Self-development and Strengthening of Offshore Oil and Gas Equipment—Main equipment required for offshore oil and gas development (Part 1)

       Offshore oil and gas development is of great significance to a developing China. Offshore oil and gas equipment is an important technical means and instrument for obtaining offshore oil and gas. This issue features Li Shuqing, Director of the Expert Office of China Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Industry Association, systematically analyzes and summarizes the independent development of my country's offshore oil and gas equipment, and puts forward some policy suggestions. This paper will discuss the main equipment required for the development of offshore oil and gas, the main achievements of my country's offshore oil and gas equipment manufacturing industry, the gap between China's offshore oil and gas equipment manufacturing industry, and the aspects of promoting the autonomy and strengthening of offshore oil and gas equipment. Explain. Due to the length of the article, this journal will be published in installments.

 

海洋油气开发对于发展中的中国意义重大,海洋油气装备是获取海洋油气的重要技术手段和器具。本刊特中国石油和石油化工设备工业协会专家办公室李树清主任,针对我国海洋油气装备自主化发展进行系统分析和总结,并提出一些政策性的建议。该文将从有关海洋石油天然气开发所需的主要装备、我国海洋油气装备制造业所取得的主要成就、我国海洋油气装备制造业的差距、关于促进海洋油气装备自主化及做强做大诸方面进行阐释。鉴于文章较长,本刊将分期刊登。

 

Thoughts and Suggestions on the Self-development and Strengthening of Offshore Oil and Gas Equipment

海洋油气装备自主化

及做强做大的思考与建议

Main equipment required for offshore oil and gas development (Part 1)

——海洋石油天然气开发所需的主要装备(上)

 

Li Shujie/China Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Industry Association

李树洁/中国石油和石油化工设备工业协会

 

"If a worker wants to do a good job, he must first sharpen his tools."

The oil and gas equipment manufacturing industry is to enhance the strength of the oil industry. It is an indispensable strategic industry to ensure national energy security. Technical equipment is the material basis and means for realizing offshore oil and gas development, and technical equipment for offshore oil and gas development must be the first.

Since H.L. Williams completed the first well on the coast of California in 1887, which opened the prelude to the world's offshore oil industry, offshore oil and gas development has gone through more than a century.

“工欲善其事,必先利其器。”

油气装备制造业是提升石油工业实力.保障国家能源安全不可或缺的战略性产业。技术装备是实现海洋油气开发的物质基础和手段,海洋油气开发技术装备必须先行。

1887H.L.威廉斯在加利福尼亚州海边完成第一口井,拉开世界近海石油工业的序幕起,海洋油气开发至今已经历了一个多世纪。

 

Characteristics of Offshore Oil and Gas Development

海洋油气开发特点

Compared with land development, offshore oil and gas development is very different, and has the following characteristics: limited working space for offshore oil and gas drilling and production platforms (vessels), harsh natural conditions, complex oil and gas field construction equipment and tools, high technology content, and poor transportation. The requirements are completely different from those on land. There are special needs for the support and guarantee of land bases and emergency rescue at sea. The investment is large, the scope of involvement is large, the management is difficult, there are many unknown fields, the requirements for personnel quality are high, the life cycle of oil and gas fields is short, and the offshore platform is safe. Management and environmental protection are more demanding than onshore.

海洋油气开发与陆地开发相比有很大的不同,具有如下几个特点:海油气钻采平台(船)工作空间有限,自然条件恶劣,油气田建设装备和工具复杂,科技含量高,对交通运输的要求与陆地完全不同,对陆上基地的支持保障及海上应急救助有特殊需要,投资大、牵涉面广、管理难度大、未知领域多,人员素质要求高,油气田寿命周期短,海上平台安全管理和环境保护比陆上要求高。

Compared with land, the most significant difference between offshore drilling and production is that all activities take place on drilling platforms with limited space, so the production wellhead, oil and gas burial, and gathering and transportation systems are quite different; It is basically similar to onshore, including well completion technology, oil-water-gas string, oil production process, water injection process, and production stimulation measures.

与陆地相比,海洋钻采最显著的不同是一切活动皆发生在空间有限的钻井平台上,因此生产井口、油气处埋与集输系统等差异较大;而井口以下部分从工艺到设备都与陆上基本类似,包括完井技术,油水气管柱,采油工艺、注水工艺、增产措施等。

 

The main process of offshore oil and gas development

海洋油气开发主要过程

 

The development of offshore oil and gas resources mainly includes three processes: geophysical prospecting, drilling and development. Each process needs to be guaranteed by offshore oil and gas technical equipment.

海洋油气资源开发主要包括物探、钻探、开发三个过程。每个过程都需要有海洋油气技术装备提供保障。

The process of marine oil and gas geophysical exploration is to use a geophysical exploration vessel to conduct (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and four-dimensional) geophysical exploration of the seabed strata using seismic exploration methods, to understand the seabed geological structure, to find oil storage structures, and to provide a basis for drilling.

海洋油气物探过程是用地球物理勘探船,采用地震勘探法对海底地层进行(二维、三维和四维)地球物理勘探,了解海底地质构造,以寻找储油构造,为钻探提供依据。

The offshore oil and gas drilling process is to drill exploration wells in the blocks confirmed by geophysical exploration, mostly using jack-up platforms or semi-submersible platforms. Using the exploration data, drilling and coring may be carried out on the geology that may have oil and gas. to determine whether to drill appraisal wells, as well as the number and location of appraisal wells.

海洋油气钻探过程是在地球物理勘探确认的区块打勘探井,多采用自升式平台或半潜式平台。利用勘探资料,对可能有油气的地质进行钻井、取芯。以决定是否钻评价井,以及评价井的数量和井位。

The process of offshore oil and gas development is mainly to calculate oil reserves, formulate development plans, including resource, engineering and economic evaluation, and then determine the use of fixed platforms or floating production systems for production, storage, and transportation.

海洋油气开发过程,主要是计算油藏储量,制定开发方案,包括资源、工程与经济评价,然后确定采用固定式平台或浮式生产系统进行生产、储存、运输等。

The development process mainly includes four main processes: development drilling, completion and oil production, oil and gas separation, and oil and gas gathering and transportation. Development drilling is the drilling after exploration drilling, including drilling production wells in the early stage of oil and gas field development and drilling adjustment wells in the middle and late stages of production; the methods of drilling production wells include floating drilling and platform drilling; marine completion, development wells After the hole is drilled, through a series of downhole operations, the downhole production string and the wellhead Christmas tree are installed, the oil and gas layers are shot through, and the submarine oil and gas is recovered in a controlled manner.

开发过程主要包括开发钻井、完井采油、油气分离和油气集输四个主要过程。开发钻井,是继勘探钻井之后的钻井,包括油气田开采初期钻生产井和开采中后期钻调整井;钻生产井的方式有浮式钻井和平台钻井两大类;海洋完井,开发井的井孔钻成后,通过一系列的井下作业,安装好井下生产管柱和井口采油树等,射穿油气层,有控制地将海底油气采出。

 

Main equipment for offshore oil and gas development

海洋油气开发主要装备

 

There are different ways of dividing offshore oil and gas development equipment. One is to divide it into drilling equipment, oil production equipment and supporting equipment, including the following equipment:

海洋油气开发装备存在不同划分方式,一种是将其划分为钻井装备、采油装备和配套装备,具体包含如下装备:

       Drilling equipment includes various types of offshore drilling platforms (ships) and their drilling and completion equipment。

       钻井装备 包括各类海洋钻井平台(船)及其钻井完井装备。

Offshore drilling platforms (ships) are divided into 8 types: Drill Barge, Drill Ship, Inland Barge, Jackup, Platform Rig, Semi-submersible drilling platform (Semi Submersibles), submersible drilling platform (Submersible), drilling module (Tender).

海洋钻井平台(船)分为8种:钻井驳船(Drill Barge),钻井船(Drill Ship),内陆驳(Inland Barge),自升式钻井平合(Jackup),平台钻机(Platform Rig),半潜式钻井平台(Semi Submersibles),坐底式钻井平台(Submersible),钻井模块(Tender)

Drilling and completion equipment includes: oil standard machine, drilling pump, well control equipment, solids control equipment, wellhead drilling tool discharge system, downhole power drilling tools and instruments, offshore platform completion system, subsea completion system, near water surface completion system Wait.

钻井完井装备包括:石油准机、钻井泵、井控设备、固控设备、井口钻具排放系统、井下动力钻具及仪表、海上平台完井系统、海底完井系统、近水面完井系统等。

Oil production equipment includes floating production and storage unit (FPSO), semi-submersible platform production system (including tension leg platform production system TLP), jack-up platform production system and barge production system and other mobile offshore oil production (production) equipment ( MOPU), oil and gas water management system, etc.

采油装备 包括浮式生产储油装置(FPSO),半潜式平台生产系统(含张力腿平台生产系统TLP)、自升式平台生产系统和驳船式生产系统等移动式海上采油(生产)装备(MOPU),油气水分理处理系统等。

Ancillary equipment such as workover equipment, oil testing equipment, logging equipment, logging equipment, supply and maintenance systems, etc.

配套装备 如修井设备、试油设备、测井设备、录井设备、供应和维修系统等。

The other is to divide it into two categories: marine engineering equipment or carrying equipment (drilling and mining platforms, auxiliary ships) and special drilling and mining equipment.

另一种是将其划分为海洋工程装备或称承载承运装备(钻采平台、辅助船舶)和钻采专用装备2大类。

From the perspective of price composition, the cost of marine engineering equipment for simply building the platform, hull structure and outfitting only accounts for 15-30% of the total cost of the entire platform (ship), and the remaining 70-85% of the cost is related to the platform (ship). Supporting special equipment for drilling and production (general equipment, special equipment, related instruments, pipes, cables, etc.).

从价格构成方面测算,单纯建造平台、船体结构及舾装方面的海洋工程装备费用仅占整个平台(船)总造价的15-30%,其余70-85%的费用则是与平台(船)配套的钻采专用装备(通用设备、专用设备、相关仪表、管、缆等)。

Offshore engineering equipment (drilling and production platforms, auxiliary ships) Offshore oil and gas drilling and production platforms are offshore steel structures used for the exploration and exploitation of seabed slugs. In addition to drilling, these platforms can also be used for oil production, oil storage, living facilities, supply , auxiliary, marine terminal, etc. Including fixed platform and mobile platform two categories. Fixed platforms are mainly used for drilling, completion and oil production operations in shallow seas with a water depth of less than 400m. Such as jacket platform, concrete gravity platform, box-type steel-concrete structure platform and other fixed platforms. The mobile drilling and oil production platform (ship) can drill, complete and produce oil in deep water (1500m or 5000m). Including jack-up drilling platform, semi-submersible drilling platform, tension leg oil production platform, single cylinder oil production platform, FPSO, drilling ship and other floating production equipment.

海洋工程装备(钻采平台、辅助船舶)海洋油气钻采平台是用于海底石沺勘探、开采的海上钢质建筑物,除钻井外,这些平台还可用于采油、贮油、生活设施、供应、辅助、海上码头等。包括固定式平台和移动式平台两大类。固定式平台主要用于水深在400m以内浅海钻井、完井和采油作业。如导管架平台、混凝土重力平台、箱式钢混结构平台和其他固定式平台等。移动式钻井采油平台(船)可至深水(≥1500m5000m)钻井、完井和采油。包括自升式钻井平台、半潜式钻井平台、张力腿采油平台、单圆柱采油平台、FPSO、钻井船等浮式生产设备。

The platforms (ships) used in offshore oil and gas drilling and production operations have gone through the development stages of fixed, bottom and jack-up. Most of the development of my country's offshore oilfields use jack-up platforms, but the maximum working water depth is only 122m, which is far from meeting the needs of deep-sea oil production. Now it has developed to the sixth generation, and the world's largest working water depth is 3658m; the drilling ship has the characteristics of flexible movement, simple berthing, and a wide range of applicable water depths, especially suitable for drilling operations in deep water above 3500m.

海洋油气钻采作业所用的平台(船)先后经历了固定式、坐底式和自升式的发展阶段。我国近海油田的开发,大多使用自升式平台,但最大工作水深仅122m,远远不能满足深海采油的需要;深海钻井装置主要是半潜式钻井平台,它由坐底式平台发展面来,现已发展到第六代,世界最大工作水深3658m;钻井船具有移动灵活,停泊简单,适用水深范围大等特点,特别适用于在3500m以上深水钻井作业。

Offshore floating production equipment currently mainly includes: floating production storage unit (FPSO), floating storage and offloading vessel (FSO), semi-submersible drilling platform, vertical production platform (Spar, also known as floating single-pillar platform) ), jacket platform (Fixed Platform), compliant platform (Compliant Tower), tension leg platform (TLP), etc., of which FPSO should be the focus of future development. The various platforms are shown as follows:

海洋浮式生产设备目前主要包括:浮式生产储油装置(FPSO)、浮式储油卸油船(FSO)、半潜式钻井平台、竖筒式生产平台(Spar,亦称浮式独柱平台)、导管架平台(Fixed Platform)、顺应式平台(Compliant Tower)、张力腿平台(TLP)等,其中FPSO应是未来的发展重点。各类平台图示如下:

FPSO has the advantages of strong wind and wave resistance, small initial investment, quick effect, long-term mooring at sea, transfer and reuse, etc. The collected oil and gas are separated from oil, water and gas, and used to treat oily sewage, power generation, heat supply, and storage and export of crude oil products. It is known as an "offshore processing plant" and has become the mainstream way of offshore oil development today. The technology of the whole ship is complex, and the price is much higher than that of oil tankers of the same tonnage.

浮式生产储油装置(FPSOFPSO除具有强抗风浪能力、初期投资小、见效快、能长期系泊在海上、可以转移、重复使用等优点外,它的储油能力大,并可以将采集的油气进行油水气分离,处理含油污水、发电、供热、原油产品的储存和外输,被誉为“海上加工厂”,已成为当今海上石油开发的主流方式。整船技术复杂,价格远远高出同吨位油船。

Jacket Platform (FP) The upper end of the jacket is equipped with a deck, which is equipped with drilling equipment and oil production equipment. The working water depth is as small as 500m, the platform is mainly suitable for shallow water, and the economic effect is obvious.

       导管架平台(FP)导管架上端安有甲板,配有钻探设备、采油设备等.工作水深小干500m,该平台主要适用于浅水,而且经济效应明显。

A compliant platform (CT) consists of a narrow elastic metal tower and pile foundation that supports the deck used for drilling and production operations. This type of platform can withstand large lateral forces by supporting a certain amount of lateral deflection. Its working water depth is 457-915m. Compared with the jacket platform, it can be used in deeper sea areas.

顺应式平台(CT包括一座狭窄的弹性金属塔和桩基,可以支撑用于钻孔和生产操作的甲板,该类型平台通过支持一定的侧向变位从而可以承受较大的侧向力。其工作水深为457-915m。与导管架平台相比,可用于更深的海域。

The working water depth of the tension leg platform (TLP) is 457-1829m. It has the advantages of good motion performance in waves and strong resistance to harsh environments. Compared with fixed platforms, it is lower in cost, has strong seismic resistance, is easy to migrate and can be reused.

张力腿平台(TLP工作水深为457-1829m,具有波浪中运动性能好、抗恶劣环境作用能力强的优点,较之固定式平台造价低、抗震能力强、便于迁徙、可重复利用。

The vertical production platform (Spar) is mainly composed of four systems: the top module, the body shell, the mooring system, and the riser (production, drilling, and oil transportation). Similar to the TLP platform, it has good stability and motion performance; the working water depth of the platform is 588m-1710m; it has developed from the first generation of traditional cylindrical (Classic) Spar, the second generation of truss (Truss) Spar, to the current The third generation of sub-tube cluster type (Cell) and wet tree (Wet Tree) type Spar.

竖简式生产平台(Spar主要由顶部模块、体壳、系泊系统、立管(生产、钻探、输油)四个系统组成。与TLP平台相似,具有很好的稳性及运动性能;平台工作水深588m-1710m;已从第一代传统筒柱形(ClassicSpar,第二代桁架型(TrussSpar,发展到现在的第三代分筒集束型(Cell)和湿树(Wet Tree)型Spar

In addition to the drilling and workover capabilities, the semi-submersible oil production platform (FPS) also has oil production and oil storage capabilities suitable for multiple subsea wells and satellite wells; it has good mobility, strong wind and wave resistance, wide working water depth range, and deck space. It has the advantages of large size, large storage capacity and high variable load; it integrates production, oil storage and external transportation, and its application degree is only inferior to FPSO; generally, it is fixed in offshore oilfields for a long time by single-point mooring, and is connected with underwater oil production devices and shuttles. Oil tankers form a complete production system and are important engineering equipment for offshore oilfield development, especially for early production and marginal oilfield development.

半潜式采油平台(FPS除具有钻井、修井能力外,还有适应多海底井和卫星井的采油和储油能力;具有移动性好、抗风浪能力强、工作水深范围广、甲板空间大、储存能力大、可变载荷高等优点;集生产、储油及外输于一身,其应用程度只次于FPSO;一般通过单点系泊长期固定在海上油田,与水下采油装置和穿梭油船组成一套完整的生产系统,是海上油田开发的重要工程设备,特别适用于早期生产和边际油田的开发。

Other auxiliary platforms and ships include various types of engineering exploration and survey ships, marine haulage, hoisting, assembly, deployment, laying, and maintenance engineering ships, control, living, and support platforms, resource storage, transportation ships, and ore gathering ships.

其他辅助平台和船舶包括各类工程勘探测量船,海上拖运、起吊、装配、布放、铺设、维修工程船,控制、生活、保障平台,资源储存、运输船,集矿船等等。

At present, there are 87.5 Runyang drilling and production platforms (vessels) under construction in the world, including 88 drilling vessels (42 in service), 227 semi-submersibles (150 in service), and 505 jack-ups ( 112 in service), 7 stationary and 48 drilling barges. According to the operating water depth, conventional water depth (below 400m) accounts for 69%, deep water (400-1500m) accounts for 20%, ultra-deep water (greater than 1500m) accounts for 11%, of which jack-up platforms account for about 60%, and the market demand is huge.

目前全球已有和在建的润洋钻采平台(船)87.5座,其中:钻井船88座(在役42座)、半潜式227座(在役150座)、自升式505座(在役112座)、固定式7座、钻井驳船48艘。按作业水深分,常规水深(400m以下)占69%,深水(400-1500m)占20%,超深水(大于1500m)占11%,其中自升式平台约占60%,市场需求巨大。

There are 37 offshore drilling platforms (ships) in my country, and 18 are under construction (15 jack-ups, 2 seated, and 1 semi-submersible). Among them, there are 7 bottom-mounted platforms, with an operating water depth of less than 10m and a maximum well depth of 7000m, which are used for operations in shallow sea areas; 20 jack-up drilling platforms, with an operating water depth of 20-122m and a well depth of 5000-9144,m, using 90-12m water depth. Sea area; 5 semi-submersible drilling platforms. The operating water depth is 200-457m, and the well depth is 6000-7620m, mainly operating in deep sea. However, due to the high cost and technical difficulty of drilling rigs, our country is still blank, and can only be rented for deep-sea drilling, and the daily rent is currently around US$500,000.

我国现有海洋钻井平台(船)37座,在建18座(自升式15座,坐底式2座,半潜式1座)。其中坐底式平台7座,作业水深10m以内,最大井深7000m,用于浅海区域作业;自升式钻井平台20座,作业水深20-122m,井深5000-9144,m,应用90-12m水深的海域;半潜式钻井平台5座.作业水深200-457m,井深6000-7620m,主要在深海作业。但钻井船因造价高,技术难度大,我国还是空白,深海钻井时只能租用,日租金目前为50万美元左右。

Special equipment for drilling and production The main system of an offshore oil drilling rig includes the rig body, top drive system, mud, pump system, solid content control system, well control system for non-floating drilling, and screwing and discharging system for drilling tools.

钻采专用装备 海洋石油钻机主系统包括钻机本体、顶部驱动系统、泥浆、泵系统、固体含量控制系统、非浮式钻井的井控系统、钻具的拧卸排放系统。

Floating drilling surface and subsea equipment systems include subsea production systems (base plate systems, subsea wellheads and Christmas trees, subsea manifolds, subsea production control systems, subsea processing systems, subsea production system installation and maintenance services, etc. ), well closure system and drill string heave motion compensation and tensioning system on the water surface.

浮式钻井水面与水下设备系统包括水下生产系统(基盘系统、水下井口和采油树、水下管汇、水下生产控制系统、海底处理系统、水下生产系统安装和维护服务等)、封井系统和水面上钻柱升沉运动补偿及张紧系统等。

Completion and production equipment systems include surface, near-water and subsea completion and production systems, such as in-well production strings, surface or subsea oil production wellhead devices, electric submersible pumps and other mechanical lifting systems and pipes, cables, and control systems.

完井采油设备系统包括水面、近水面与水下完井采油系统,如井内生产管柱、水面或水下采油井口装置、电潜泵等机械提升系统和管、缆、控制系统。

Drilling and production cementing system includes cementing pump, cement storage, transportation and mixing system and instrument control system.

钻采固井系统 包括固井泵、水泥储存输送与混合系统及仪表控制系统。

Drilling and completion oil production power system. Including diesel or gas turbine generator sets, air compressor sets, frequency conversion and control systems.

钻井、完井采油动力系统。包括柴油或燃气轮机发电机组、空气压缩机组、变频与控制系统。

 

Announcement of the next content:

下期内容预告:

Main equipment required for offshore oil and gas development (part 2)

海洋石油天然气开发所需的主要装备(下)

 

 

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Keywords关键词:海洋油气, 海洋油气开发主要装备, 钻井装备, 海洋钻井平台, 采油装备,油气水分理处理系统, 配套装备, 海洋工程装备,海底石沺勘探, 半潜式钻井平台, 浮式生产储油装置, 导管架平台, 顺应式平台, 张力腿平台, 竖简式生产平台, 半潜式采油平台, 其他辅助平台和船舶, 钻采专用装备, 钻采固井系统.

Offshore Oil & Gas, Offshore Oil & Gas Development Main Equipment, Drilling Equipment, Offshore Drilling Platform, Oil Production Equipment, Oil & Gas Water Management System, Ancillary Equipment, Offshore Engineering Equipment, Seabed Rock Exploration, Semi-submersible Drilling Platform, Floating Production Storage Unit, Jacket platform, compliant platform, tension leg platform, vertical production platform, semi-submersible oil production platform, other auxiliary platforms and ships, special equipment for drilling and production, drilling and cementing system.

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Poster发布人: Clark Guo,CCSC Technology,Shanghai,China,2022.09     Youtube: ClarkOilGas 

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