Thoughts and Suggestions on the Self-development and Strengthening of Offshore Oil and Gas Equipment—Main equipment required for offshore oil and gas development (Part 1)
Offshore oil and gas development is of great significance to a developing China. Offshore oil and gas equipment is an important technical means and instrument for obtaining offshore oil and gas. This issue features Li Shuqing, Director of the Expert Office of China Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Industry Association, systematically analyzes and summarizes the independent development of my country's offshore oil and gas equipment, and puts forward some policy suggestions. This paper will discuss the main equipment required for the development of offshore oil and gas, the main achievements of my country's offshore oil and gas equipment manufacturing industry, the gap between China's offshore oil and gas equipment manufacturing industry, and the aspects of promoting the autonomy and strengthening of offshore oil and gas equipment. Explain. Due to the length of the article, this journal will be published in installments.
Thoughts and Suggestions on the Self-development and Strengthening of Offshore Oil and Gas Equipment
—Main equipment required for offshore oil and gas development (Part 1)
口Li Shujie/China Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Industry Association
"If a worker wants to do a good job, he must first sharpen his tools."
The oil and gas equipment manufacturing industry is to enhance the strength of the oil industry. It is an indispensable strategic industry to ensure national energy security. Technical equipment is the material basis and means for realizing offshore oil and gas development, and technical equipment for offshore oil and gas development must be the first.
Since H.L. Williams completed the first well on the coast of California in 1887, which opened the prelude to the world's offshore oil industry, offshore oil and gas development has gone through more than a century.
Characteristics of Offshore Oil and Gas Development
Compared with land development, offshore oil and gas development is very different, and has the following characteristics: limited working space for offshore oil and gas drilling and production platforms (vessels), harsh natural conditions, complex oil and gas field construction equipment and tools, high technology content, and poor transportation. The requirements are completely different from those on land. There are special needs for the support and guarantee of land bases and emergency rescue at sea. The investment is large, the scope of involvement is large, the management is difficult, there are many unknown fields, the requirements for personnel quality are high, the life cycle of oil and gas fields is short, and the offshore platform is safe. Management and environmental protection are more demanding than onshore.
Compared with land, the most significant difference between offshore drilling and production is that all activities take place on drilling platforms with limited space, so the production wellhead, oil and gas burial, and gathering and transportation systems are quite different; It is basically similar to onshore, including well completion technology, oil-water-gas string, oil production process, water injection process, and production stimulation measures.
The main process of offshore oil and gas development
The development of offshore oil and gas resources mainly includes three processes: geophysical prospecting, drilling and development. Each process needs to be guaranteed by offshore oil and gas technical equipment.
The process of marine oil and gas geophysical exploration is to use a geophysical exploration vessel to conduct (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and four-dimensional) geophysical exploration of the seabed strata using seismic exploration methods, to understand the seabed geological structure, to find oil storage structures, and to provide a basis for drilling.
The offshore oil and gas drilling process is to drill exploration wells in the blocks confirmed by geophysical exploration, mostly using jack-up platforms or semi-submersible platforms. Using the exploration data, drilling and coring may be carried out on the geology that may have oil and gas. to determine whether to drill appraisal wells, as well as the number and location of appraisal wells.
The process of offshore oil and gas development is mainly to calculate oil reserves, formulate development plans, including resource, engineering and economic evaluation, and then determine the use of fixed platforms or floating production systems for production, storage, and transportation.
The development process mainly includes four main processes: development drilling, completion and oil production, oil and gas separation, and oil and gas gathering and transportation. Development drilling is the drilling after exploration drilling, including drilling production wells in the early stage of oil and gas field development and drilling adjustment wells in the middle and late stages of production; the methods of drilling production wells include floating drilling and platform drilling; marine completion, development wells After the hole is drilled, through a series of downhole operations, the downhole production string and the wellhead Christmas tree are installed, the oil and gas layers are shot through, and the submarine oil and gas is recovered in a controlled manner.
Main equipment for offshore oil and gas development
There are different ways of dividing offshore oil and gas development equipment. One is to divide it into drilling equipment, oil production equipment and supporting equipment, including the following equipment:
Drilling equipment includes various types of offshore drilling platforms (ships) and their drilling and completion equipment。
Offshore drilling platforms (ships) are divided into 8 types: Drill Barge, Drill Ship, Inland Barge, Jackup, Platform Rig, Semi-submersible drilling platform (Semi Submersibles), submersible drilling platform (Submersible), drilling module (Tender).
海洋钻井平台（船）分为8种：钻井驳船(Drill Barge)，钻井船(Drill Ship)，内陆驳(Inland Barge)，自升式钻井平合(Jackup)，平台钻机(Platform Rig)，半潜式钻井平台(Semi Submersibles)，坐底式钻井平台(Submersible)，钻井模块(Tender)。
Drilling and completion equipment includes: oil standard machine, drilling pump, well control equipment, solids control equipment, wellhead drilling tool discharge system, downhole power drilling tools and instruments, offshore platform completion system, subsea completion system, near water surface completion system Wait.
Oil production equipment includes floating production and storage unit (FPSO), semi-submersible platform production system (including tension leg platform production system TLP), jack-up platform production system and barge production system and other mobile offshore oil production (production) equipment ( MOPU), oil and gas water management system, etc.
Ancillary equipment such as workover equipment, oil testing equipment, logging equipment, logging equipment, supply and maintenance systems, etc.
The other is to divide it into two categories: marine engineering equipment or carrying equipment (drilling and mining platforms, auxiliary ships) and special drilling and mining equipment.
From the perspective of price composition, the cost of marine engineering equipment for simply building the platform, hull structure and outfitting only accounts for 15-30% of the total cost of the entire platform (ship), and the remaining 70-85% of the cost is related to the platform (ship). Supporting special equipment for drilling and production (general equipment, special equipment, related instruments, pipes, cables, etc.).
Offshore engineering equipment (drilling and production platforms, auxiliary ships) Offshore oil and gas drilling and production platforms are offshore steel structures used for the exploration and exploitation of seabed slugs. In addition to drilling, these platforms can also be used for oil production, oil storage, living facilities, supply , auxiliary, marine terminal, etc. Including fixed platform and mobile platform two categories. Fixed platforms are mainly used for drilling, completion and oil production operations in shallow seas with a water depth of less than 400m. Such as jacket platform, concrete gravity platform, box-type steel-concrete structure platform and other fixed platforms. The mobile drilling and oil production platform (ship) can drill, complete and produce oil in deep water (≥1500m or 5000m). Including jack-up drilling platform, semi-submersible drilling platform, tension leg oil production platform, single cylinder oil production platform, FPSO, drilling ship and other floating production equipment.
The platforms (ships) used in offshore oil and gas drilling and production operations have gone through the development stages of fixed, bottom and jack-up. Most of the development of my country's offshore oilfields use jack-up platforms, but the maximum working water depth is only 122m, which is far from meeting the needs of deep-sea oil production. Now it has developed to the sixth generation, and the world's largest working water depth is 3658m; the drilling ship has the characteristics of flexible movement, simple berthing, and a wide range of applicable water depths, especially suitable for drilling operations in deep water above 3500m.
Offshore floating production equipment currently mainly includes: floating production storage unit (FPSO), floating storage and offloading vessel (FSO), semi-submersible drilling platform, vertical production platform (Spar, also known as floating single-pillar platform) ), jacket platform (Fixed Platform), compliant platform (Compliant Tower), tension leg platform (TLP), etc., of which FPSO should be the focus of future development. The various platforms are shown as follows:
海洋浮式生产设备目前主要包括：浮式生产储油装置（FPSO）、浮式储油卸油船（FSO）、半潜式钻井平台、竖筒式生产平台（Spar，亦称浮式独柱平台）、导管架平台（Fixed Platform）、顺应式平台（Compliant Tower）、张力腿平台（TLP）等，其中FPSO应是未来的发展重点。各类平台图示如下：
FPSO has the advantages of strong wind and wave resistance, small initial investment, quick effect, long-term mooring at sea, transfer and reuse, etc. The collected oil and gas are separated from oil, water and gas, and used to treat oily sewage, power generation, heat supply, and storage and export of crude oil products. It is known as an "offshore processing plant" and has become the mainstream way of offshore oil development today. The technology of the whole ship is complex, and the price is much higher than that of oil tankers of the same tonnage.
Jacket Platform (FP) The upper end of the jacket is equipped with a deck, which is equipped with drilling equipment and oil production equipment. The working water depth is as small as 500m, the platform is mainly suitable for shallow water, and the economic effect is obvious.
A compliant platform (CT) consists of a narrow elastic metal tower and pile foundation that supports the deck used for drilling and production operations. This type of platform can withstand large lateral forces by supporting a certain amount of lateral deflection. Its working water depth is 457-915m. Compared with the jacket platform, it can be used in deeper sea areas.
The working water depth of the tension leg platform (TLP) is 457-1829m. It has the advantages of good motion performance in waves and strong resistance to harsh environments. Compared with fixed platforms, it is lower in cost, has strong seismic resistance, is easy to migrate and can be reused.
The vertical production platform (Spar) is mainly composed of four systems: the top module, the body shell, the mooring system, and the riser (production, drilling, and oil transportation). Similar to the TLP platform, it has good stability and motion performance; the working water depth of the platform is 588m-1710m; it has developed from the first generation of traditional cylindrical (Classic) Spar, the second generation of truss (Truss) Spar, to the current The third generation of sub-tube cluster type (Cell) and wet tree (Wet Tree) type Spar.
In addition to the drilling and workover capabilities, the semi-submersible oil production platform (FPS) also has oil production and oil storage capabilities suitable for multiple subsea wells and satellite wells; it has good mobility, strong wind and wave resistance, wide working water depth range, and deck space. It has the advantages of large size, large storage capacity and high variable load; it integrates production, oil storage and external transportation, and its application degree is only inferior to FPSO; generally, it is fixed in offshore oilfields for a long time by single-point mooring, and is connected with underwater oil production devices and shuttles. Oil tankers form a complete production system and are important engineering equipment for offshore oilfield development, especially for early production and marginal oilfield development.
Other auxiliary platforms and ships include various types of engineering exploration and survey ships, marine haulage, hoisting, assembly, deployment, laying, and maintenance engineering ships, control, living, and support platforms, resource storage, transportation ships, and ore gathering ships.
At present, there are 87.5 Runyang drilling and production platforms (vessels) under construction in the world, including 88 drilling vessels (42 in service), 227 semi-submersibles (150 in service), and 505 jack-ups ( 112 in service), 7 stationary and 48 drilling barges. According to the operating water depth, conventional water depth (below 400m) accounts for 69%, deep water (400-1500m) accounts for 20%, ultra-deep water (greater than 1500m) accounts for 11%, of which jack-up platforms account for about 60%, and the market demand is huge.
There are 37 offshore drilling platforms (ships) in my country, and 18 are under construction (15 jack-ups, 2 seated, and 1 semi-submersible). Among them, there are 7 bottom-mounted platforms, with an operating water depth of less than 10m and a maximum well depth of 7000m, which are used for operations in shallow sea areas; 20 jack-up drilling platforms, with an operating water depth of 20-122m and a well depth of 5000-9144,m, using 90-12m water depth. Sea area; 5 semi-submersible drilling platforms. The operating water depth is 200-457m, and the well depth is 6000-7620m, mainly operating in deep sea. However, due to the high cost and technical difficulty of drilling rigs, our country is still blank, and can only be rented for deep-sea drilling, and the daily rent is currently around US$500,000.
Special equipment for drilling and production The main system of an offshore oil drilling rig includes the rig body, top drive system, mud, pump system, solid content control system, well control system for non-floating drilling, and screwing and discharging system for drilling tools.
Floating drilling surface and subsea equipment systems include subsea production systems (base plate systems, subsea wellheads and Christmas trees, subsea manifolds, subsea production control systems, subsea processing systems, subsea production system installation and maintenance services, etc. ), well closure system and drill string heave motion compensation and tensioning system on the water surface.
Completion and production equipment systems include surface, near-water and subsea completion and production systems, such as in-well production strings, surface or subsea oil production wellhead devices, electric submersible pumps and other mechanical lifting systems and pipes, cables, and control systems.
Drilling and production cementing system includes cementing pump, cement storage, transportation and mixing system and instrument control system.
Drilling and completion oil production power system. Including diesel or gas turbine generator sets, air compressor sets, frequency conversion and control systems.
Announcement of the next content:
Main equipment required for offshore oil and gas development (part 2)
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