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The global oil and gas exploitation has entered the "CO2" era -- the prospect of CO2 enhanced oil recovery technology and equipment

Jiang Huaiyou/China Petroleum Economics and Technology Research Institute Shen Pingping/China Petroleum Exploration and Development Research Institute Lu Ying/China National Petroleum Corporation Li Zhiping Luo Jinling/China University of Geosciences Jiang Liangji/Yan'an University Qi Renli/Daqing Petroleum Institute

江怀友/中国石油经济技术研究院 沈平平/中国石油勘探开发研究院 卢 颖/中国石油天然气集团公司 李治平罗金玲/中国地质大学 江良冀/延安大学 齐仁理/大庆石油学院

Global climate change and carbon dioxide emissions are closely related. Storing CO2 is an effective way to avoid climate change. The main options for underground storage are depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep brine reservoirs, unexploitable coal seams, and deep sea storage. Among the major oil-producing countries, increasing the exploration and development of new oil reservoirs is an important direction of oil work; in addition, improving the recovery rate of discovered oil fields is the focus of the oil industry of various countries. Most of the world's oil fields have already passed the peak production period, and in non-OPEC countries, mature oil fields account for an increasing proportion of production (Figure 1). In the total annual production of oil fields in the world, the production of mature oil fields accounts for 50%, or even more than 70% (picture 2).

全球气候变化与二氧化碳排放有 王关。埋存CO2是避免气候变化的 有效途径,地下埋存主要的选择是枯竭 油气藏、深部的盐水储层、不能开采的 煤层、深海埋存等。当前各大产油国 中,加大新油藏的勘探开发是石油工作 的重要方向;另外,提高已发现油田的 采收率,是各国石油工业的焦点所在。当前世界大部分油田都已经过了产量高 峰期,在非OPEC国家中,成熟油田的 产量占的比重越来越高(图1 )。在世 界油田年度总产量上,成熟油田的产量 占到了 50%,甚至70%以上(图2 )。

depleted oil and gas reservoirs

CO2 sequestration forecast

枯竭油气藏

CO2埋存量预测

IEA assesses COz storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs IEA (International Energy Agency) assesses the world’s CO2 storage potential, see Table R. The data is obtained by comparing the CC)2 emissions from 2000 to 2050, see Table 1

IPCC assessment of CO2 storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs The global CO2 geological storage data assessed by IPCC (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) is obtained by comparing the CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2050, and considering that the cost per ton of CO2 injection is 20 $/t, see Table 2.

IEA评估枯竭油气藏CO2埋存l量 IEA (International Energy Agency )评 估世界C02的埋存潜力,见表R数据 是对比2000年~ 2050年CO2的排放虽 得出,见表1

IPCC评估枯竭油气藏CO2埋存量 IPCC (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change )评价的世界CO2 地质埋存量数据是对比2000 ~ 2050年 CO2的排放量得出的,同时考虑注入CO2的每吨成本为 20$/t,见表2。

World CO2-EOR Overview

世界CO2-EOR概况

The world's CO2 enhanced oil recovery potential is 160-300 billion barrels, and the world's CO2 surge oil production accounts for 15% of the world's EOR output. The CO2 surge oil projects are mainly distributed in the United States.

In 2008, the world's total EOR production was 1.861 million barrels per day, and the CO2-EOR star production was 272,500 barrels per day.

It accounts for 15.1% of the total EOR production (picture. 3), which is much smaller than the steam surge commonly used in oil fields. With the in-depth and extensive application of CO2-EOR technology, its proportion has a lot of room for improvement.

世界co2 高采收率潜力为 1600-3000亿桶, 世界CO2骤油产量 占世界EOR产量 15%, CO2骤油项 目主要分布在美 国。

2008年,世 界总EOR产量为 186.1万桶/天, COz-EOR产星为 27.25万桶/天,

占总的EOR产量的 15.1% (图3),远小于油田上普遍采 用的蒸汽骤,随着C(\-EOR技术的深 入和广泛应用,其所占的比例有很大 的提升空间。

Overview of US co2-eor

美国co2-eor概况

The United States has a certain history of using carbon dioxide to enhance oil recovery. 94% of the world's CO2-EOR projects are in the United States, and CO2-EOR projects have grown steadily since the 1980s. Supported by numerous projects, its CO2-EOR technology is relatively mature. Both mixed-phase and non-mixed-phase practical projects have many real-world achievements.

美国利用二氧化碳提高采收率有 —定的历史,世界94%的CO2-EOR 项目在美国,自80年代以后CO2- EOR项目稳定増长。众多的项目支撑 使得其CO2-EOR技术相对成熟。混 相駆与非混相駆的实践项目都有很多 的现实成就。

CO2-EOR Main Workload In 2004, CO2-EOR added crude oil production accounted for 31% of total U.S. enhanced oil recovery project production0 CO2-EOR production accounted for 3.6% of U.S. oil production o First CO2-EOR in 1972 The miscible flooding project was implemented in the Sacoc field of the Permian Basin. In the 1970s and early 1980s, CO2-EOR technology was moderately developed. In the 1980s and 1990s, despite the low oil price, CO2-EOR technology developed rapidly. In 2008, CO2-EOR in the United States has been industrialized. There are W5 CO2-EOR projects in the country. Although the total output is 250,000 barrels per day, the US CO2-EOR production is 247,900 barrels per day, accounting for the world's CO2-EOR0 production. 91% of the total, and the number of projects accounts for 85% of the world.

CO2-EOR主要工作量 2004年 co2-eor增加的原油产量占美国提高 采收率项目总产量的31%0 CO2-EOR 的产量占美国石油产量的3.6%o 1972 年第一个CO2-EOR混相驱油项目在 Permian盆地的Sacroc油田实施,在 七十年代到八十年代早期CO2-EOR技 术得到适度的发展,到八十年代和九十 年代虽然油价低但CO2-EOR技术迅速 发展。2008年,美国CO2-EOR已经实现 了工业化应用,全国有W5个CO2-EOR项目,总产虽25万桶/天,美 国CO2-EOR产虽为24.79万桶/天,占 世界CO2-EOR产量的91%,项目数 量占世界85%。

CO2-EOR miscible oil flooding practice The number of CO2-EOR miscible oil projects is increasing, which expands the application scale of CO2-EOR and provides the physical and chemical mechanism of CO2-EOR oil. However, the implementation conditions of the C02-EOR project and the effect of individual projects are not good, and few articles have been published so far.

The practice of 10 CO2-EOR projects in the Permian Basin shows that when pure CO2 is injected into the reservoir (there is a difference between the total injection of CO2 and the cyclic injection of CO2), an average of 164m3 CO2 is replaced per barrel (bbl) of crude oil (ie 330kg/bbl) 0 270kg/bbl at Rocky Mountain and 400kg/bbl at Midwest. Enhanced recovery by 10.9% in the Permian Basin, 7.6% in the Rocky Mountain area, and 7.2% in the Midwest, see picure 5.

Although many reports indicate that successful water flooding is the basis for the implementation of CO2-EOR projects. The argument is that after water scouring, the remaining large amount of water in the reservoir needs to be pushed by C02. Since CO2 dissolves in water, a large amount of CO2 will be lost, which will affect the effect of scouring oil.

co2-eor混相驱油实践co2- EOR混相駆油项目数量不断增加,使 CO2-EOR应用规模扩大,提供了C02- EOR駆油的物理化学机理。但C02- EOR项目实施条件及个别项目效果不 好,目前发表的文章较少。

Permian 盆地的 10个 CO2-EOR 项目实践表明,储层中注入纯净的 CO2 (注入总量C02和循环注入CO2 使有区别的),平均164m3CO2替换 每桶(bbl )原油(即330kg/bbl) 0 在Rocky Mountain为270kg/bbl,在 Midwest为400kg/bbl。在Permian 盆地提高釆收$10.9% ,在Rocky Mountain地区提高采收率7.6%,在 Midwest提高釆收率7.2%,见图5。

虽然很多报告指出成功的水驱是 co2-eor项目实施的基础。争论在于 水駆后,储层中剩余大量的水需要C02 推动,由于C02溶解在水中会损失大量 的C02的,影响駆油效果。

Compared with the CO2-EOR immiscible lance oil project, there are fewer CO2-EOR immiscible lance oil projects. A large CO2-EOR immiscible mule oil project is located in the Bati Raman field southeast of Turkey. The crude oil in the reservoir is heavy oil with a specific gravity of 9-150 API. The traditional oil recovery method is only 1.5% of the original geological reserves. CO2 was injected in 1986, and crude oil production was 6000 bbl/do predicted using CO2. The CO2-EOR field has a recovery rate of 6.5%.

The main principle of CO2 sequestration is that CO2 dissolves in the fluid in the reservoir. A small co2-eor immiscible flooding project is in operation in the United States, and there are 5 pilot-scale CO2-EOR immiscible flooding in Trinidad. project. In the 1980s and 1990s, there were a large number of CO2-EOR immiscible flooding projects. CO2 was injected to form a gas cap at the top of the reservoir structure, which increased the formation pressure and pushed the crude oil to the lower part of the reservoir and both sides, where there are production wells To extract crude oil, see Fig. 10o The project study shows that 380m of CO2 is required to replace 1 barrel of crude oil (760kg/bbl).

Although there are few CO2-EOR immiscible lance oil projects, 280-400 m3 CO2 is required to displace 1 barrel of crude oil, that is, 560-790 kg/bbl. The CO2-EOR immiscible oil displacement project can enhance the oil recovery by 20%.

co2-eor非混相驱油实践 CO2-EOR混相駆油项目相比,CO2-EOR非混相駆油项目较少。一个大型 的CO2-EOR非混相骡油项目在Turkey 东南的Bati Raman油田。储层中的原 油为重油,比重为9~150API。传统 采油方式只是采出1.5%的原始地质 储量。1986年注入CO2,原油产量为 6000bbl/do预测使用CO2-EOR油田的 采收率为6.5%。

CO2埋存的主要原理是CO2溶解在 储层中的流体中,在美国一个小型的 CO2-EOR非混相驱油项目在运行,在Trinidad有5个CO2-EOR非混相驱油的 中试项目。在上世紀八九十年代有大 量的CO2-EOR非混相驱油项目,注入 CO2在储层构造顶部形成气顶,使地层 压力增加,将原油向储层下部合两边推 动,那里有生产井将原油采出,见图10.项目研究表明,需要380m,CO2桶原油(760kg/bbl )。

虽然CO2-EOR非混相駆油項目较 少,驱替1桶原油需要280-400 m3 C02,即560~790kg/bbl, CO2-EOR 非混相驱油项目可最大提高采收率 20%。

co2-eor development prospect

Figure 7 shows the global CO2 EOR production potential; Figure 8 shows the EU CO2 EOR production forecast. Since 2003, the US Department of Energy has funded the research and development of "new generation" CO2-EOR technology and equipment. The new co2-eor technology is expected to increase the recovery rate of many oilfields from 33% to more than 60%. Some reservoirs with good geological conditions can reach more than 80%.

The "new generation" CO2-EOR technology and equipment will improve the replacement design and well layout plan, selectively drill complex structural wells, and carry out workover operations on existing wells to ensure that CO2 can be exposed to the poorer waves in the past. Residual oil in the layer; add tackifier and miscible agent in the work, use tackifier to improve the control effect of convection, and use miscible agent to reduce MMP; increase the injection of CO2, in order to reach 1.5HCPV: establish a complete The technical team continuously diagnoses and controls the displacement effect, uses observation wells and sensors equipped with equipment to detect the CO2 displacement process, and conducts four-dimensional seismic and layer-by-layer flow tests to manage and control the CO2 displacement.

According to the forecast and analysis of IEA in 2008, CO2-EOR technology has a wide range of application prospects. The world's CO2-EOR oil increase potential is 160-300 billion barrels, which is equivalent to 7%-14% of the world's recoverable crude oil. Among them, North America is optimistic. The predicted oil increase potential is the highest, as shown in Figure 9

co2-eor发展展望

图7为全球二氧化碳提高采收率増 产潜力情况;图8是欧盟二氧化碳提 高采收率产量预测情况。从2003年开 始美国能源部资助研发了 “新一代” CO2-EOR技术与装备,新CO2-EOR技 术有望将许多油田的采收率从33%提高到60%以上,一些地质条件好的储 层可以达到80%以上。

“新一代CO2-EOR技术与装备 将改进驴替设计和布井方案,有选择性 地加钻复杂结构井,并对现有井进行修 井作业,确保CO2能够接触到以往波及 较差的层位的残余油;在作W中添加增 粘剂和混相剂,使用增粘剂改善对流度 的控制效果,用混相剤降低MMP; CO2的注入京,以期到1.5HCPV: 立完备的技术队伍,对驱替效果逬行持 续诊断和控制,采用装了设备的观察井 和传感器来检测CO2辨替过程,阶段性 的进行四维地震和逐层流动测试来管理 和控制CO2。

IEA2008年预测分析,CO2- EOR技术具有广泛的应用前景,世界 CO2-EOR的增油潜力为1600~3000 亿桶,相当于目前世界可采原油量的 7%~14%,其中北美地区的乐观预测 增油潜力最高,如图9

 

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Keywords关键词:全球油气开采步入“CO2”时代——CO2提高采收率技术与装备展望;枯竭油气藏CO2埋存量预测;世界CO2-EOR概况;美国co2-eor概况;CO2-EOR主要工作量;co2-eor混相驱油实践;co2-eor非混相驱油实践;co2-eor发展展望The global oil and gas exploitation has entered the "CO2" era - the prospect of CO2 enhanced oil recovery technology and equipment; the forecast of CO2 storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs; the world's CO2-EOR overview; the US co2-eor overview; CO2-EOR main workload; co2- eor miscible flooding practice; co2-eor immiscible flooding practice; co2-eor development prospect

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