Riduzione delle emissioni in azione-Opzioni promettenti per la cattura e lo stoccaggio dell'anidride carbonica
Projects to capture carbon dioxide and store it permanently underground are currently underway in many countries. Total has carried out a pilot project near Pau in southwestern France, which has an unprecedented degree of integration, including the entire process of carbon dioxide capture, oxy-combustion, and underground storage. Between 2009 and 2010, the project will capture about 150,000 tons of carbon dioxide and store it in a huge porous gas reservoir 4,500 meters below ground.
Riduzione delle emissioni in azione---
Opzioni promettenti per la cattura e lo stoccaggio dell'anidride carbonica
口 Mich e le Jocelun / Total
Mich e le Jocelun / 道达尔公司
Worldwide, human activities cause 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide gas to be emitted into the atmosphere every year, of which about 40% comes from power plants, 23% from the transportation industry, and 22% from cement plants, steel mills and oil refineries. Five new coal-fired power plants come into operation every week, releasing huge amounts of carbon dioxide. There are nearly 8.000 power plants worldwide that can use CO2 capture technology.
Reduced by 20%-40%
Carbon dioxide emissions
The idea behind this technology is to capture carbon dioxide at the source, before it is emitted from a large smokestack in a plant that burns fossil fuels (oil, gas or coal), or when it is separated from sour natural gas during the production of natural gas , the carbon dioxide is captured, and once captured, it is transported to a storage site by pipeline or ship. It is compressed to a supercritical state (where carbon dioxide is as dense as a liquid) and injected deep underground.
According to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IGCC) survey, the application of nuclear technology can reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 20%-40%, which will have a positive impact on climate change. Therefore, this solution is considered to be very promising, as a complementary measure to reduce energy consumption and use renewable energy on a larger scale.
"Pilot projects are flourishing all over the world," says Pierre Le Thiez, deputy general manager of the newly formed Geogreen Engineering Company. “Since 1996, StatoilHydro has been CO2-separating produced natural gas (i.e. methane) at Norway’s Sleipner field in the North Sea and injecting millions of tons of the separated CO2 into the seabed every year. At Canada’s Weyburn field, CO2 Injected into a depleted oil field. In the ln-Salah region of Algeria, BP is sequestering carbon dioxide separated from natural gas. In the Barents Sea near the Arctic Ocean, StatoilHydro can separate natural gas from the Snohvit field. carbon dioxide and sequester it". These experimental projects will be followed by more than a dozen pilot pilot projects in Europe by 2015, and the technology will be commercialized between 2020 and 2030.
“试验项目在世界各地蓬勃开展”，新成立的Geogreen工程公司副总经理Pierre Le Thiez说。“自1996年以来，StatoilHydro公司就在北海的挪威Sleipner气田，对生产的天然气（即甲烷）进行二氧化碳分离，并且每年将分离出来的上百万吨二氧化碳注入到海底。在加拿大的Weyburn油田，二氧化碳被注入到一个开采枯竭的油田中。在阿尔及利亚的ln- Salah地区，BP公可正在封存从天然气中分离出来的二氧化碳。北冰洋附近的巴伦支海，StatoilHydro公司可将在Snohvit气田从天然气中分离二氧化碳并加以封存”。至2015年，欧洲将在这些实验项目之后开展十多个示范性先导项目，并在2020年-2030年间，将该技术实现商业化。
Total has been focusing on these issues since 2000 and is currently developing the technology through the company's partnerships in Sleipner, Weyburn and Snobvit, among others. The Total Group operates and manages production facilities that produce 57.8 million tonnes of CO2 per year and will benefit from advances in CO2 capture and storage technology. In this regard, extra-heavy oil production is a very good example. In December 2007, on the occasion of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali, Total and the Indonesian government signed a future cooperation agreement to share technological achievements in the carbon field.
Total returns to the Lacq Basin Experiment Project
Carbon dioxide capture and storage technology is becoming more mature, and will soon be popularized. There are three main processes for carbon dioxide capture: before, during and after the combustion of hydrocarbons. The post-combustion process is carried out in the industrial Carbon dioxide is captured in the waste gas generated by the facility and "washed" with an amine-based solvent or an amino-based solvent. The difficulty in applying this process is that carbon dioxide only accounts for 10% of the gas being processed, which means that we have to deal with a large amount of gas, so the process is neither economical nor energy-efficient. Pierre Le Thicz pointed out. In the oxy-fuel combustion test to be performed by the Lacq, the fuel is burned in a pure oxygen environment. “In this case, we don’t have the dilution problem anymore, the carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas is more than 90%, which increases the efficiency of the capture.” Total project manager Nicolas Aimard explained. “If indirect emissions are not included in capture, our goal is to capture—half the CO2 emissions. Half the cost compared to conventional technologies.” The third option is pre-combustion, from an industrial point of view See, this is the most complicated kind of craft. In this case, the fuel is not fully oxidized in water vapor and air (this is also called steam reforming) or oxygen, thus producing a syngas that is converted into carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
二氧化碳的捕集和封存技术正目益成熟，并且很快能得到普及，捕集二氧化碳主要有三种工艺，分别是：在碳氢燃烧之前、燃烧过程中和燃烧之后进行，燃烧后工艺是在工业设施产生的废气中捕集二氧化碳，用胺基溶剂或氨基溶剂对其进行“浣刷”。应用这种工艺的难点在于，二氧化碳只占被处理气体的10%，这就意味者我们必须处理大量的气体，所以该工艺收即不经济，也不节能。Pierre Le Thicz指出。即将Lacq进行的加氧燃烧试验， 燃料在纯氧环境下燃烧。“在这种情况下，我们就不会再遇到稀释问题了，废气中的二氧化碳超过的90%，这样就提高了捕集的效率。“道达尔项目经理Nicolas Aimard解释道。“如果间接排放不包括在捕集范围内，我们的目标是捕集—半的二氧化碳排放量。与传统的技术相比，成本节省一半。”第三种方案是燃烧前工艺，从工业角度来看，这是最复杂的一种工艺。在这种情况下，燃料会在水蒸汽和空气（这也被称作蒸汽重整）或氧气中不完全氧化，因此产生一种合成气，这种合成气被转换成二氧化碳和氢气。
Once the carbon dioxide is captured, the next step is to permanently store it. There are also three options for selecting formations for carbon dioxide storage, but all of them require a sedimentary basin with a storage depth of more than 800 meters. People often have a grasp of the geological conditions of depleted oil and gas, and have formed drawings. Aquifers of brine-filled sandstone or limestone provide enough room for carbon dioxide storage (an estimated 10 trillion tons of carbon dioxide can be stored) to meet the requirements of the world for centuries. The last option is to absorb carbon dioxide into untapped coal seams.
In the Lacq Basin in the Aquitaine region of France, Total is preparing for a pilot project. In 1957, Total discovered natural gas in the Lacq Basin. To date, the Lacp gas field has produced a cumulative 260 billion cubic meters of methane. Retrofit work has started on five boilers that will provide process steam for the treatment of sour gas.
"This is the first fully integrated project to date to capture and store carbon dioxide during gas combustion." Nicolas Aimard said, “In the Lacp Basin, we will carry out the complete operational process: extraction, treatment and combustion of sour natural gas; carbon dioxide capture; transport to storage via a 27,00-meter pipeline; In the gas reservoir. During the two years of the project, the carbon dioxide equivalent to the exhaust emissions of 50,000 cars will be extracted, purified, compressed and injected.” At the same time, the 25-meter-high, 30-megawatt test boiler will be continuously Provides process steam - 40 tons per hour at temperatures up to 450°C and pressures of 60 atmospheres - to the industrial facility installed at Lacp. The boiler is equipped with four new oxy-fired furnaces designed by Air Liquide. Near the boiler, a cryogenic distillation unit will be installed to produce the required 240 tons of oxygen per day. The end result is that 200 tons of concentrated carbon dioxide are captured every day.
“这是迄今为止第一个在气体燃烧过程中对二氧化碳进行捕集和封存的完全一体化项目”。Nicolas Aimard说道，“在Lacp盆地，我们将进行完整的作业流程：抽取、处理和燃烧酸性天然气；二氧化碳捕集；通过一条27,00米的管线输送到封存地；在Rousse将二氧化碳注入到枯竭的气藏内。在项目开展的两年时间里，将对相当于50,000辆汽车尾气排放量的二氧化碳进行抽集、净化、压缩和注入。”同时，25米高、30兆瓦的试验锅炉将不断地向安装在Lacp的工业设施提供工艺蒸汽---每小时40吨，温度高达450℃，压力为60个大气压。该锅炉配备了四台 Air Liquide公司设计的新型氧气燃烧炉。在锅炉附近，将安装一个低溫蒸馏装置，生产每天所需的240吨氧气。最终结果是，每天捕集200吨浓缩二氧化碳。
"This is the first pilot project in Europe to use depleted onshore oil and gas fields to store carbon dioxide," the project manager emphasized. "We will also continue to improve the methods and instruments used to monitor the dynamics of the storage site to ensure that carbon dioxide can be stored stably over a long period of time. Exist there and gain experience for larger operations in the future.” The pilot pilot project will study leakage risks and chemical reactions in the gas reservoir, and will measure the amount and composition of the injected gas, as well as the temperature of the gas and pressure, and monitor seismic activity to ensure that the integrity of the gas reservoir is not compromised. The project will also use instruments provided by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), the French Bureau of Geographic and Mineral Research (BROM) and the Ecole Nationale du Lorraine (JNPL) to study the composition of subsurface gases. The Rouse gas reservoir is topped by a calcareous clay cap that has experienced more than 35 million years of Pyrenean tectonic movement.
Before the project was submitted for official approval in 2008, Total consulted extensively with local officials, regional authorities, community organisations and individual citizens. “The purpose of the broad consultation is to establish a dialogue and meaningful communication with all stakeholders,” explains Claude Chardonnet, manager of C&S Conseils consulting firm responsible for consultation and communication. “This consultation culminated in November 2007, when we Three public meetings were held at WllDCOn, PaU and Lacq.” Each meeting was three hours long and included a detailed presentation of the project and comments made by independent experts discussing the importance of the project, the benefits and risks involved, and the project In terms of economic, regulatory and control issues, Dahl's attitude is very clear, that is, he hopes that the public society will be involved. "We have also established a scientific committee with the participation of external independent experts, which is responsible for supervising this project. Industry. Businesses are often not so open, and doing so encourages people to participate in discussions and have their views on the future of energy. We hear from them and they have a further say in these matters,” concludes Claude Chardo.
该项目于2008年提交官方批准，在项目提交前，道达尔集团向地方官员、地区当局、社区组织和公民个人广泛地征求意见。“广泛征求意见的目的就是建立对话，与所有利益相关者进行有意义的沟通”负责磋商和交流的C&S Conseils咨询公司经理Claude Chardonnet解释道.“这种磋商于2007年11月达到了高潮，我们在WllDCOn、PaU和Lacq举行了三次公众会议。”每次会议长达三个小时，包括详细介绍项目情况和独立专家做出的评论，讨论项目的重要性、所包含的利益和风险，以及项目的经济、监管和控制方面的事宜，达尔的态度很明确，那就是希望公众社会参与进来白 “我们还专门成立了一个科学委员会，有外部的独立专家参加，负责对这个项目进行监晋。工业企业通常做不到这么公开，而这样做有利于鼓励人们参与讨论，发表对未来能源的看法。我们听到了他们的心声，他们在这些事务中有进一步的发言权。”Claude Chardo总结说。
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CO2 capture and storage, CO2 emissions, sour natural gas, supercritical states, renewable energy, CO2 separation, extra-heavy oil production, amine-based solvents, steam reforming, depth of storage, process steam, new oxygen burners, calcareous clays Cover layer, public social participation.
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