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Reflections on the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico
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Reflections on the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

Reflections on the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

墨西哥湾漏油事故引发的思考

Special Commentator / Chen Xinhua

口特约评论员/陈新华

On April 20, there was a loud bang in the waters of the US Gulf of Mexico, and a BP offshore oil rig exploded, triggering the largest oil spill in history. On June 23, the accident worsened again. The underwater device originally used to control the oil leakage point was dismantled and repaired due to failure. The once suppressed crude oil at the bottom of the well was out of control again and spewed out. The scope of oil pollution in the Gulf of Mexico was further expanded, resulting in the worst environmental disaster in U.S. history. It will take several months to close the oil wells after the fire is extinguished, and the clean-up of oil pollution on the sea surface and the purification of sea water will take several years, and the economic losses to the ecological environment of the Gulf of Mexico will reach hundreds of billions of dollars.

420日,美国墨西哥湾海面一声巨响,英国石油公司(BP)的一座海上石油钻井平台发生爆炸,引发了有史以来最大的漏油事故。623日,事故再度恶化,原本用于控制漏油点的水下装置因发生故障拆下修理,一度被压制的井底原油再次失控,喷涌而出,墨西哥湾油污范围进一步扩大,酿成了美国历史上最严重的环境灾难。火灾扑灭后尚需几个月时间封闭油井,而海面油污的清理和海水净化工作将耗时数年,对墨西哥湾生态环境造成的经济损失将高达数千亿美元。

On July 8, at the time of writing this article, the US media published the latest report that oil globules from oil leaking wells in the Gulf of Mexico had been discovered on the eastern beaches of Texas. This shows that the oil pollution has been found to span nearly 900 kilometers from Florida in the east to Texas in the west, spreading to all five states along the U.S. Gulf Coast. At present, the oil spill is still invading deep into Louisiana. At the same time, BP announced that the company spent as much as $3.12 billion on the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. American public opinion commented that the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was "comparable to the '911'" national disaster.

78日,本文截稿时,美国媒体刊登最新报道,得克萨斯州东部海滩已发现了来自墨西哥湾漏油井的油球。这表明,从东部的佛罗里达州到西部的得克萨斯州,发现油污的范图已横跨近900公里,扩散到了美国墨西哥湾沿岸所有5个州。目前,漏油还在向路易斯安那州纵深侵袭。与此同时,BP石油公司宣布,该公司用于处理墨西哥湾漏油事故的费用支出高达31.2亿美元。美国舆论评论说,墨西哥湾漏油事故“堪比‘911’”国家灾难。

Looking at the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico with a professional eye, the cause is petroleum technical equipment. Oil technical equipment is also used to control oil spills, seal oil wells, and plug underwater leaks. Oil technical equipment is inseparable from oil pollution and even purification of sea areas. It was the problems that occurred during the use of petroleum technical equipment that led to the biggest environmental disaster in American history, and the final uniform of the environmental disaster had to rely on petroleum technical equipment. In this sense, to draw lessons from experience, the first warning is the petroleum equipment manufacturing industry.

用专业眼光来审视墨西哥湾漏油事故,起因是石油技术装备,控制漏油、封闭油井、水下堵漏使用的也是石油技术装备,清理油污乃至净化海域都离不开石油技术装备。正是石油技术装备使用过程中出现的问题,酿成了这场美国历史上最大的环境灾难,而环境灾难的最终制服,还得要靠石油技术装备。从这个意义上来讲,汲取经验教训,首先警示的当属石油装备制造业。

One of the warnings: Cheng ye petroleum technology and equipment, loses petroleum technology equipment. So far, oil exploration and development activities, especially offshore oil operations, have relied on petroleum technology and equipment, and they are also working hard on petroleum technology and equipment. Petroleum technology and equipment can change the face of oil development and push the oil business to the top; it can also destroy the dream of oil development. , pushing the oil business to rock bottom. It can be said that the success of petroleum technology and equipment, the failure of petroleum technology and equipment.

警示之一:成也石油技术装备,败也石油技术装备。迄今为止的石油勘探开发活动尤其是海上石油作业活动,靠的是石油技术装备,打拼的也是石油技术装备,石油技术装备可以改变石油发展面貌,将石油事业推向顶峰;也可以摧毁石油发展梦想,将石油事业推到谷底。真可谓,成也石油技术装备,败也石油技术装备。

According to reports, the direct cause of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was that the casing of the oil well could not withstand the high pressure down hole, and there were multiple ruptures of. Some public opinion condemned BP Oil Company for blindly pursuing commercial interests and catching up with the progress of work due to the use of immature petroleum technology and equipment.

有报道称,酿成墨西哥湾漏油事故的直接原因,是油井套管不能承受井下高压,出现多处溃裂,井下防喷阀等关键技术装备又不堪重负,无法阻止井底原油外泄造成的。有舆论谴责BP石油公司因使用不成熟的石油技术装备,盲目追求商业利益,追赶工作进度。

This incident warns people that without mature, complete and reliable petroleum technical equipment as a guarantee, it is easy to carry out oil deep-sea operations. Once an accident occurs, the loss and harm caused will be irreversible and even fatal.

该事件警示人们,没有成熟、配套、可靠的石油技术装备作保障,轻易进行石油深海作业,一旦酿成事故,造成的损失和危害将是无法挽回的,甚至是致命的。

Before the accident, BP Oil was the most valuable company in Europe, and it was the company's investment in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the offshore business that propelled BP's oil business to the top, BP oil company has drilled one of the world's deepest offshore oil wells (10,700 meters) in the Gulf of Mexico. However, all this is very difficult, but very easy to go. - Overnight, BP oil company fell into a "destroyed disaster". In just over two months, it paid 2.65 billion US dollars just to control oil leakage and build relief wells. As a result, BP's market value quickly evaporated, the loss exceeded $100 billion, and the company's credit rating plummeted.

事故发生前,BP石油公司曾是欧洲市值最高的公司,而支撑其市值登顶的精彩表现,正是该公司在墨西哥湾的投资,正是那里的海上业务将BP的石油事业推向了顶峰,BP石油公司曾在墨西哥湾打出了一口世界上最深的海上油井(10700米)。然而,这一切来得十分艰难,去得却极其容易。 —夜之间,BP石油公司便陷入了“灭顶之灾”,短短两个多月时间,仅控制漏油、修建减压井就付出了26.5亿美元。BP石油公司市值因此迅速蒸发,损失超过了1000亿美元,公司信用评级一落千丈。

According to preliminary estimates, BP will eventually spend $69 billion due to the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and has established a $20 billion compensation fund under the supervision of the U.S. government. In order to pay the huge compensation, BP Oil has announced that it will stop paying dividends for three quarters and sell about $10 billion of "non-core" assets. It is reported that the first asset sale is the US$9.1 billion stake in Argentina's Pan American Energy Company under its control. BP Petroleum is currently negotiating this stake sale, and the negotiating party is China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC).

据初步估算,BP石油公司将因墨西哥湾漏油事故最终支出690亿美元,现已在美国政府监督下,建立了200亿美元的赔偿基金。为支付巨额赔偿,BP石油公司已宣布停发三个季度的股息,出售大约100亿美元的“非核心” 资产。据悉,首笔资产出售是其掌控下的阿根廷泛美能源公司91亿美元的股权,目前BP石油公司正就此项股权出售进行谈判,而谈判对方则是中国的海洋石油总公司(CNOOC)。

An old-fashioned oil company that has been stunned by the situation for many years, overnight, due to an accident, fell to the point of "bankruptcy", which is enough to sound the alarm to the global oil industry. From a professional point of view, the most shocking is the petroleum equipment manufacturing industry.

一个叱诧风云多年的老牌石油公司,一夜之间,因—场事故而跌落到了即将“倾家荡产”的地步,这件事足以向全球石油界敲响警钟。从专业角度来讲,震撼最为强烈的,当属石油装备制造业。

Warning No. 2: The corporate survival rule of environmental protection must not be underestimated. The impact of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico extends beyond the incident itself. Under the background of the era when the deterioration of the earth's environment is increasingly troubling human society and the survival and development of high-carbon oil is facing severe challenges, the occurrence of the accident not only discredited the old oil company BP, but also changed the corporate survival rules and mission from environmental protection. Sense, moral sense "change the oil industry forever".

警示之二:环境保护的企业生存法则,决不可小视。墨西哥湾漏油事故的影响已经超出了事件本身。在地球环境恶化日益困扰人类社会,高碳石油生存和发展面临严峻挑战的时代大背景下,事故的发生,不仅使BP这个老牌石油公司,声誉扫地,而且将从环境保护的企业生存法则和使命感、 道义感上“永远改变石油工业”。

After the accident, the U.S. government immediately announced that it would list the oil spill crisis in the Gulf of Mexico as a national disaster and use all available resources, including national defense resources, to fight the disaster. President Obama visited the site four times to direct the disaster response, announced a six-month moratorium on deep-water oil drilling and exploration in the Gulf of Mexico below sea level of 150 meters, and then extended it to this year, and will consider signing a deep-water oil drilling ban, allowing only oil companies.” Drilling in certain low-risk deep water areas. With the gradual deepening of the degree of land and resource exploration, entering the deep land and ocean has become the main direction of today's American oil industry. However, a sudden oil spill almost interrupted the US government's national policy of developing offshore oil resources.

事故发生后,美国政府当即宣布,将墨西哥湾漏油危机列为国家级灾难,动用所有可动用的资源包括国防资源投入抗灾。奥巴马总统四次亲临现场指挥抗灾,宣布墨西哥湾海平面150米以下的深水石油钻探和勘测暂停6个月,后又延期至年内,并将考虑签署一项深水石油钻探禁令,只允许石油公司”在某些低风险深水区域”进行钻探。随着国土资源勘探程度的逐步加深,向陆地和海洋深层进军,已成为当今美国石油工业的主攻方向。然而,一场突如其来的漏油事故,却近乎中断美国政府开发近海石油资源的国策。

Faced with the environmental disaster caused by oil, even the world's number one power like the United States feels helpless and exhausted. In Louisiana, the worst-affected state, the coastline has been polluted by oil slicks, and the oil pollution is destroying the coastal ecology. With the advent of the hurricane season, tropical cyclones are likely to carry oil spills and form a more terrifying "black storm" that will spread over the vast land. Environmental pollution will not only wipe out coastal life, destroy fisheries production and fishermen's livelihoods in the southern United States, but also cause the ensuing depression of tourism and shipping.

面对石油酿成的环境灾难,连美国这样的世界头号强国也感到束手无策,疲惫不堪。受害最严重的路易斯安那州,海岸线已被浮油污染,油污正在毁灭沿岸生态。随着飓风季的来临,热带气旋很可能裹挟漏油,形成更为恐怖的“黑色风暴”,洒向广袤的陆地。环境污染不仅使沿海生物遭遇灭顶之灾,摧毁美国南部的渔业生产和渔民生计,还将造成接踵而来的旅游业和航运业萧条。

Looking at the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico before and after, it can make people really feel that the enterprise survival law of environmental protection must not be underestimated, especially the environmental accidents caused by oil, which are often major accidents, which can easily lead to unprecedented events. Environmental disaster. Several oil accidents that have occurred in our country also have the same characteristics. Looking at the oil spill accident in the Gulf of Mexico from the perspective of the enterprise survival law of environmental protection, the petroleum equipment manufacturing industry should learn lessons from the "source", vigorously improve the level of research and development and manufacturing of petroleum equipment, and use mature, complete and reliable petroleum technology and equipment. Control and prevent oil accidents and disasters from the "source".

纵观墨西哥湾漏油事故发生的前前后后,可以使人真切地感到,环境保护的企业生存法则,决不可小视,尤其是石油造成的环境事故,往往都是大事故,动辄便酿成空前的环境灾难。我国曾经出现的几次石油事故,也都具有同样的特点。从环境保护的企业生存法则角度来审视墨西哥湾漏油事故,石油装备制造业更应该从“源头”上汲取经验教训,大力提高石油装备研发制造水平,以成熟、配套、可靠的石油技术装备,从 “源头”上控制和杜绝石油事故和灾难的发生。

Warning No. 3: Deep oil drilling calls for a "sharp weapon" and a "magic weapon" to overcome the strain. The handling of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be said to have twists and turns. The ineffective measures to deal with the accident and the "disappointing" petroleum technology and equipment used are the important reasons for the further expansion of the situation and the bad impact.

警示之三:石油深层钻探呼唤应变制胜的“利器”和“法宝”。此次墨西哥湾漏油事故的处理过程,可以说一波三折。事故处理措施不力,采用的石油技术装备“令人失望”,是造成事态进一步扩大,影响恶劣的重要原因。

After the accident, BP Oil Company immediately launched an emergency plan, and adopted the "top off method" to control and eliminate the accident. The principle is to first inject a large amount of high-density liquid into the oil pipeline to suppress the upwelling of crude oil in the well, and then seal the oil leakage point with cement. According to BP Petroleum, the "topping method" is the best way to plug the oil spill. However, the result of the implementation was that "the (oil leakage) flow could not be suppressed continuously". After hearing the news, President Obama said with great disappointment that the failure of the "Extinction Act" was "both infuriating and heartbreaking."

事故发生后,BP石油公司当即启动应急方案,采用“灭顶法”控制和排除事故。其原理是先将大量高密度液体注入输油管,以抑制井下原油上涌,然后再用水泥封死漏油点。按照BP石油公司的说法,“灭顶法”是封堵漏油的最佳方法。然而,实施的结果却是,“无法持续压住(漏油)涌流”。奥巴马总统闻讯后,极度失望地说:“灭顶法”的失败“既让人愤怒,又让人心碎”。

After the failure of the "top-extinguishing method", BP Oil Company prepared another set of plugging solutions, using a robotic submarine to cut off the damaged oil pipeline from the oil leakage point, and then installing a plugging valve above the pipeline to control and block the leakage. Live oil leaks. At that time, some experts reminded that if the pipeline is cut new but the plugging valve is not installed properly or other accidents occur, the amount of oil leakage will increase instead. As expected, the robot failed to go to sea, and the once suppressed crude oil at the bottom of the well was out of control again and spewed out, further expanding the scope of pollution in the Gulf of Mexico.

“灭顶法”失败后,BP石油公司又准备好了另外—套堵漏方案,使用机器人潜水艇从漏油点切断受损输油管道,然后在管道上方安装—个堵漏阀门,以控制和堵住漏油。当时就有专家提醒,如果切新了管道却装不好堵漏阀门或者出现其它意外,漏油量反而会增加。事情正如其所料的那样,机器人下海操作失败,一度被压制的井底原油再度失控,喷涌而出,使墨西哥湾污染范围进一步扩大。

Throughout the process of dealing with the oil spill, the U.S. Coast Guard and BP Petroleum have claimed that they have adopted five methods of "fixing both the symptoms and the root causes", namely, using reinforced concrete covers and large plastic covers to prevent the spread of oil pollution; spraying chemical "dispersants" Decompose oil pollution; continue to try to close the "blowout preventer" and open pressure relief wells, and make every effort to control the oil spill and the environmental and ecological disaster caused by the "five-pronged approach". Some scientists even proposed to launch a nuclear warhead deep underground, as the former Soviet Union used a nuclear explosion method to successfully subdue a runaway natural gas well, and let the huge nuclear explosion heat melt the surrounding rocks and seal the oil leaking well. However, this controversial "crazy" idea was not adopted.

在处理漏油事故的整个过程中,美国海岸警卫队和BP石油公司曾宣称,采取“标本兼治”的5种方法,即使用钢筋水泥罩和大型塑料罩防止油污扩散;喷洒化学“分散剂”分解油污;继续尝试关闭“防喷阀”和打减压井等办法,“五管齐下”全力控制漏油及其引发的环境和生态灾难。甚至有科学家提议,像前苏联当年采用核爆炸方法,成功制服失控天然气井那样,将—枚核弹头发射到地下深处,让巨大的核爆炸热量熔化周围岩石,封住漏油井。然而,这—颇具争议的“疯狂”设想,并没有被采纳。

When all kinds of plugging measures failed, BP Oil Company pinned its last hope in plugging oil leaking wells on relief wells. The first relief well was activated on May 3, and BP claims it is a proven technology to fundamentally stop oil leaks from subsea wells, which they are very familiar with. However, even if this measure is successful, it will take at least three months to take effect, and the US government and the public may not have the patience for three months.

在各种封堵措施均不奏效的情况下,BP石油公司将封堵漏油井的最后希望寄托在了打减压井上。第一口减压井已于53日启动,BP石油公司声称,这是从根本上制止海底油井漏油的成熟技术,他们在这方面驾轻就熟。然而,此项措施即使成功,至少也要三个月后才能见效,而美国政府和公众却可能没有3个月的耐心。

At this moment, how eager BP Petroleum Company is to have a set of "sharp weapons" and "magic weapons" to deal with accidents and overcome emergencies. In the face of the increasingly widespread bottom-hole oil leakage, the strong American oil industry also appears helpless, passive and helpless. In the process of handling the oil spill accident in the Gulf of Mexico, the performance of petroleum technology and equipment has been "disappointing" again and again, and has issued an urgent and deep call to the petroleum equipment manufacturing industry again and again, calling for mature, supporting and reliable deep oil wells. Technical equipment will come out as soon as possible.

此时此刻,BP石油公司是多么的渴望手中能够拥有—套处理事故,应变制胜的“利器”和“法宝”。面对日益扩散的井底漏油,强手如林的美国石油界也显得束手无策,被动万分,毫无回天之力。墨西哥湾漏油事故处理过程中,石油技术装备—次又一次“令人失望”的表现,向石油装备制造业一次又一次发出了急切而又深沉的呼唤,呼唤成熟、配套、可靠的石油深井技术装备尽快问世。

This is the call of the oil industry facing the severe challenges of a low-carbon economy.

这是面临低碳经济严峻挑战的石油工业发出的呼唤。

This is the solemn mission that the times entrusted to the petroleum equipment manufacturing industry!

这是时代赋予石油装备制造业义不容辞的庄严使命!

 

 

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Keywords关键词:石油技术装备,控制漏油,封闭油井,石油装备制造业,环境灾难,井下防喷阀,井底原油外泄,石油深海作业,海上油井,信用评级,敲响警钟,环境污染,封住漏油井,减压井,低碳经济,石油工业.

Petroleum technical equipment, oil spill control, oil well closure, petroleum equipment manufacturing industry, environmental disasters, down hole blowout preventer, bottom hole crude oil leakage, oil deep-sea operations, offshore oil wells, credit rating, sounding the alarm, environmental pollution, sealing leaks Oil wells, relief wells, low carbon economy, petroleum industry.

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Poster发布人:Clark Guo,CCSC Technology, Shanghai, China, 2022.09   Youtube: ClarkOilGas  

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