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Pollution: What Equipment BP Needs for Leakage Plugging?
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Pollution: What Equipment BP Needs for Leakage Plugging?

On April 20, 2010, after the deep water blowout accident in the US Gulf of Mexico, BP took a number of rescue measures, most of which were first attempts. These rescue measures have important reference value for my country's deepwater drilling construction.

2010420日,美国墨西哥湾深水井喷事故发生后,BP公司采取了多项救险措施,其中多为首次尝试。这些抢险措施对于我国深水钻探施工具有重要的参考价值。

 

After the deep water well blowout accident happened in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010,.BP has taken several rescue measures including closing BOP with ROV separating seawater and crude oil with Macodome, separating seawater and crude oil with "top hat", drilling directional rescue wells, inserting oil conduit for oil suction, killing the well from the top "LMRP Cap" , and exporting crude oil from kill/choke pipeline, and many of them are first attempts. These emergency rescue measures are of important value as reference for the deep water drilling and construction in China.

2010420日墨西哥湾发生深水井井喷事故后,BP采取了多项救援措施,包括用ROV关闭防喷器,用Macodome分离海水和原油,用“大礼帽”分离海水和原油,钻定向救援井、插入油管吸油、从顶部“LMRP帽”压井、压井/节流管道输出原油等,很多都是首次尝试。 这些应急救援措施对我国深水钻井和建设具有重要的借鉴价值。

 

Pollution: What Equipment BP

Needs for Leakage Plugging?

污染:BP拿什么装备堵漏?

China Classification Society/ Duan Mingxing, Li Mingliang, Chen Ruifeng, Wan Bo.

段明星 李明亮 陈瑞峰 万波/中国船级社

 

After the blowout in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, BP took a series of measures to stop the blowout and reduce marine pollution. Some of these measures have a certain experience in use, and some are tried for the first time in deep water conditions; from the perspective of the use effect, some have completely failed, and some have achieved certain results; from the perspective of the implementation process, some have been completed, and some are in the process of implementation. . All these measures have important reference value for my country's deepwater drilling operations. In this paper, the above measures are divided into measures to prevent blowouts, measures to collect oil and gas from wellheads, and measures to treat oil pollution on the sea surface.

420日墨西哥湾井喷事件发生后BP公司采取了一系列制止井喷和减轻海洋污染的措施。这些措施有些具有一定的使用经验,有些是在深水条件下首次尝试;从使用效果来看,有些完全失败,有些取得了一定效果;从实施进程来看,有些已经完成,有些则正在实施过程中。所有这些措施对于我国深水钻探作业具有重要的参考价值。本文将上述措施分为制止井喷的措施、从井口收集油气的措施和海面油污处理措施分别给予介绍。

 

Measures to Stop the Blowout

制止井喷的措施

"Underwater Robot" ---- Closing BOP with ROV

“水下机器人”----ROV关闭防喷器

Since the evening of April 23, BP has used an underwater robot called ROV to close the underwater blowout preventer to prevent the blowout by setting the control panel on the blowout preventer body (see Picture 1). At most, 6 ROVs have been used at the same time, but this measure has been unsuccessful due to the failure of the underwater blowout preventer itself.

423日晚以来,BP公司使用一种被称作ROV的水下机器人,通过设在防喷器本体上控制面板来关闭水下防喷器制止井喷(见图1)。最多时曾使用6ROV同时工作,但是由于水下防喷器本身出现故障,该措施一直未能成功。

 

"Rescue Well"---Drilling a directional rescue well

“救援井”---定向救援井

The measure is to drill a directional well so that it intersects with the bottom hole of the well where the blowout occurred, use the static pressure of the liquid column formed by the heavier drilling fluid in the directional rescue well to suppress the blowout well flow, and then use cement to press the bottom of the well. Sealed to stop the blowout at all (see Picture 2). Directional rescue well technology is a mature technology with rich construction experience. With today's advanced steerable drilling technology and equipment, this measure has a high success rate. However, the construction period of the directional rescue well is relatively long, which takes 2-3 months.

该措施是钻一口定向井,使之与发生井喷的井的井底相交,用定向救援井内较重的钻井液形成的液柱静压力将喷出的井流压住,然后用水泥将井底封住,从根本上制止井喷(见图2)。定向救援井技术是一种成熟的技术,具有丰富的施工经验,凭借当今先进的导向钻进技术和装备,该措施具有较高的成功率。但是定向救援井施工周期较长,需要2-3个月时间。

On May 2, the Development Driller III, a semi-submersible drilling platform of Transocean Drilling Company, began to drill the first directional rescue well, and Development Driller II also began to drill the second rescue well on May 16. At the current rate of injection, the total amount of oil leaked is estimated to be 2 million barrels by the time the second rescue well is completed, according to Fox News estimates.

52日,越洋钻探公司的半潜式钻井平台Development Driller III开始钻第一口定向救授井,Development Driller II也于516日开始钻第二口救援井。据福克斯新闻网估计,以现在的喷油速度,到第二口救援井完工时,泄漏的原油总量估计将达到200万桶。

 

"Top Killing Method" --- Killing the Well at the Top

“灭顶法”---顶部压井

The top kill measure is to use high pressure to inject heavy drilling fluid into the wellhead from the kill/choke line located on the subsea blowout preventer, suppress the well flow, and then inject cement to seal the wellhead. On May 26, the drilling fluid did not flow down the wellbore during the implementation of the measure, but flowed into the sea through the broken riser. By May 29, BP announced that the measure had failed.

顶部压井措施是用高压将重钻井液,从位于海底防喷器上的压井/节流管线强行注入井口,将喷出的井流压住,然后注入水泥封堵井口。526日,该措施实过程中钻井液并没有进入井眼向下流动,而是通过破损的隔水管流入海中。至529日,BP公司宣布该措施失败。

 

Measures to collect oil and gas from the wellhead

从井口收集油气的措施

"Oil Barrier"---Isolate seawater and oil and gas with Macodome

“阻油罩”---Macodome隔离海水和油气

The measure is to use a large cover called Macodome (see Picture 3) to cover the oil leakage at the end of the damaged riser, to isolate the oil and gas from the seawater, and then transport it through a pipeline connected to the top of the cover to The sea is transported away by oil tankers. However, when the Macodome, which went to the seabed on May 6, covered the leak, due to the high pressure and low temperature of the seabed, the gas hydrate generated by the natural gas ejected from the oil well and the seawater blocked the oil and gas outlet at the top of the cover, resulting in This measure failed.

该措施是用一个被称为Macodome 的大罩子(见图3)将破损隔水管末端的漏油处罩住,将喷出的油气同海水隔离开来,然后通过连接于罩子顶端的管道输送至海面,由油船运走。但是,当56日下入海底的Macodome将泄漏处罩住后,由于海底高压、低温的环境条件,油井中喷出的天然气和海水生成的天然气水合物将罩子顶端的油气出口堵塞,致使该措施失败。

 

"Small oil blocking cover"---use "top hat" to isolate seawater and oil and gas

“小阻油罩”---用“top hat”隔离海水和油气

BP learned from the Macodome's failure to create a smaller cover called a "top hat" that served the same purpose as the Macodome. The smaller volume of the "top hat" reduces the amount of seawater that mixes with the natural gas, reducing the potential for gas hydrate formation inside the cap. In addition, the top of the "top hat" has two pipes in addition to an oil guide pipe, which are used to inject heat medium and organic solvent into it to dissolve the natural gas hydrate formed. However, this measure has not been successful.

BP公司汲取了Macodome的失败教训,制造一个称为“top hat”的较小罩子,其功用与Macodome相同。“top hat”较小的容积减少了与天然气相混合的海水量,降低了罩子内部形成天然气水合物的可能。另外,“top hat”的顶部除了一支导油管还有两支管子,分别用来向其内部注入热介质和有机溶剂用来溶化化形成的天然气水合物。但是,该措施仍未能够成功。

 

"Siphon Method"---Insert the oil guide tube to suck oil

虹吸管法---插入导油管吸油

After two failures on May 14 and 15, BP finally inserted a 6-inch diameter oil conduit into the end of the broken 21-inch riser on the 16th. Through this pipe, more than 1,300 barrels of crude oil are collected daily. However, due to the top kill scheme implemented later, the inserted tubing was removed.

514日和15日两次失败后,BP公司终于在16日将一根直径为6寸的导油管插入已经折断的21寸隔水管的末端。通过这根管子,日收集原油1300多桶。 但是,由于后面实施的顶部压井方案,插入的导油管被拆除。

 

"Cap method"---LMRP Cap

“盖帽法”---LMRP Cap

On June 3, BP installed a cover called LMRP CAP on the top of the LMRP to collect part of the oil and gas ejected from the wellhead. It collected 15,000 barrels of crude oil and 830,000 cubic meters of natural gas per day. The oil and gas were collected on the Discoverer Enterprise and Massachusse barges. . However, because the device was made in a hurry, the cover was made of steel plates by tailor welding, and the pressure bearing capacity was limited. Moreover, there are multiple pressure relief channels, which cannot fundamentally prevent the well flow from blowing out (see Picture 4).

63BP公司将一个称为LMRP CAP的罩子安装于LMRP的顶部,收集井口喷出的部分油气,日收集原油15000桶,天然气83万立方米,油气被收集到Discoverer EnterpriseMassachusse驳船上。但是由于该装置为仓促赶制,罩子由钢板拼焊而成,承压能力有限。且设有多个泄压通道,不能从根本上遏止井流喷出(见图4)。

Export oil and gas from kill/choke lines

从压井/节流管线导出油气

The measure, which was implemented on June 16, is to use the manifolds and pipelines of the previous top kill to guide the oil and gas ejected from the underwater wellhead to the Q4000 work over platform on the water surface and burn it directly. The daily collection of crude oil is up to 10,000 barrels, and the collected oil and gas are directly burned.

该措施616日实施,是利用先前项部压井的管汇和管线,从水下井口将喷出的油气导引至水面上的Q4000修井平台上直接烧掉。日收集原油最高达10000桶,收集的油气直接燃烧掉。

 

Use a second set of blowout preventers to seal wells and export oil and gas

使用第二套防喷器组封井并导出油气

On July 10, BP removed the LMRP Cap and replaced it with a wellhead shut-off device consisting of a transition short and a second set of blowout preventers (see Picture 5). The device can close the wellhead and deliver the oil and gas ejected to multiple vessels on the surface through a self-floating riser. The installation of the device was completed on July 16. Before the author's publication, the three sets of rams of the device have been closed and the sealing test is underway. So far, no oil and gas have been sprayed into the sea.

710BP公司将LMRP Cap拆除,取而代之的是由过渡短接和第二套防喷器组组成的井口关闭装置(见图5)。该装置可以将井口关闭,并将喷出的油气通过自浮式立管输往水面上的多艘船只。716日该装置安装完成,到笔者发稿前,该装置的三套闸板均已关闭正在进行密封性试验,实验进行到目前为止未有油气喷入海中。

 

Long-term plan to collect oil and gas

收集油气的长期计划

On July 10, BP unveiled a long-term plan to collect oil and gas spewing from wellheads on the ocean floor. (See Picture 6) Oil and gas from the second set of blowout preventers are guided to two drillships through self-floating risers for collection. A portion of the oil and gas collected in the kill/choke line is collected by the self-floating riser on board the Toisa Pisces for processing, and the other portion enters the CDP manifold. The oil and gas output from the CDP manifold is led to the Helix Producer ship through a self-floating riser, and the other pipeline leads to a subsea unit that stores carburetors. The device can handle the oil and gas spewing from the wellhead when hurricane weather arrives and surface ships are evacuated. When the entire unit is in normal operation, its crude oil processing capacity will reach 60,000 to 80,000 barrels.

710日,BP公司公布了一项收集海底井口喷出的油气的长期计划。(见图6)第二套防喷器装置中导出的油气通过自浮式立管导引至两艘钻井船上收集起来。压井/节流管线的收集的油气一部分通过自浮式立管收集Toisa Pisces 号船上进行处理,另一部分进入CDP管汇。CDP管汇输出的油气一路经自浮式立管引至Helix Producer号船上处理,另一管路通往一个储有化油剂的水下装置。该装置可以在飓风天气到来,水面船只撤离时处理井口喷出油气。整套装置正常运行时,其原油处理能力将达到6~8万桶。

Oil slick treatment

海面浮油处理

For the treatment of oil pollution on the sea surface, the work mainly focuses on the protection of the coast and the treatment of oily sewage on the sea surface. The measures used to treat oil pollution on the sea surface are to spray carburetor on the sea surface to decompose the crude oil, or use an oil boom to gather the oil layer in one place, and then collect it for treatment and recycling, or directly burn it on the sea surface (see Picture 7). 

对海面油污的处理,各项工作主要集中在对海岸的保护和海面含油污水的处理两个方面。用于处理海面油污的措施,是向海面喷洒化油剂将原油分解掉,或用围油栏将油层聚集于一处,然后收集起来经过处理回收利用,或者直接在海面焚烧掉(见图7)。

 

Analysis of various measures

对各种措施的分析

The story of the blowout happened suddenly, and the relevant parties were not sufficiently prepared. Although various rescue measures were used, they failed to stop the oil and gas from being sprayed into the sea in a short time. The problems exposed and accumulated experience during this period are worthy of summarization and research by the industry.

此次井喷事故事发突然,各相关方未有足够的准备,虽然使用了多种救险措施,但是未能在短时间内制止油气喷入海中。其间暴露的问题和积累的经验,都值得业界总结和研究。

Among the measures to stop the blowout, the costly top kill measure ultimately failed due to an underestimation of well flow pressure. The directional rescue wells that have been drilled successively are the fundamental measures to solve the blowout, but the implementation period of this measure is long, and if there is no effective measures to control and bury the spewed oil and gas during its implementation, it will still cause serious losses.

在制止井喷的措施中,耗资巨大的顶部压井措施最终失败,其原因是对井流压力估计不足。先后开钻的定向救援井则是解决井喷的根本措施,但是该措施实施周期较长,在其实施过程中如无有效措施控制和处埋喷出的油气,仍会造成严重亏染。

Among the various measures for exporting oil and gas from subsea wellheads, except for the successful implementation of the second set of blowout preventers to seal wells and export oil and gas, the other measures were hastily formulated and implemented immediately, and they were not completely Stop oil pollution of the oceans. BP's long-term plan for oil and gas collection takes into account the impact of hurricane weather and enhances its ability to handle oil and gas. If the plan can be implemented normally, it will produce good results.

在多种从海底井口将油气导出的措施中,除了目前实施的第二套防喷器组封井并导出油气的措施取得成功外,其他措施都是仓促制定并且即刻实施的,都未能完全阻止原油对海洋的污染。BP公司油气收集的长期计划考虑到了飓风天气的影响,增强了处理油气的能力。该计划如能正常实施将会产生良好的效果。

The treatment of sea slop oil is mostly conventional methods. But this is a long-term job that requires mobilizing a large number of ships and aircraft, mobilizing a large number of people, and consuming huge amounts of money.

海面污油的处理多为常规的方法。但这是一项长期工作,需要调动大量的船只和飞机,动员大量的人员,耗用巨额的资金。

The so-called "stones from other mountains can attack jade", our country should also learn from the experience and lessons accumulated in the handling of this accident, systematically study and formulate emergency plans for dealing with deep water blowout accidents, and establish a corresponding coordination mechanism to ensure that my country's oil industry develops into deep water. The sea has entered the sea smoothly.

所谓“它山之石可以攻玉”,我国也应汲取此次事故处理中积累的经验和教训,系统研究和制定处理深水井喷事故的应急方案,建立相应的协调机制,保障我国石油工业向深水海域顺利进军。

 

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Keywords关键词:救险措施,收集油气措施,海面油污处理措施,ROV关闭防喷器,钻定向救援井,顶部压井,水泥封堵井口,隔离海水和油气,天然气水合物,阻油罩,虹吸管法,导油管吸油,盖帽法,压井/节流管线,第二套防喷器组,长期计划,海面浮油处理,各种措施分析.

Rescue measures, oil and gas collection measures, sea surface oil pollution treatment measures, ROV shut-down blowout preventer, drilling directional rescue wells, top killing wells, cement plugging wellheads, isolation of seawater and oil and gas, natural gas hydrate, oil blocking cover, siphon method, guide Tubing suction, capping method, kill/choke lines, second set of blowout preventers, long-term planning, handling of oil slicks on the sea surface, analysis of various measures.

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Poster发布人: Clark Guo,CCSC Technology,Shanghai,China,2022.09     Youtube: ClarkOilGas  

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