Offshore Oil Drilling, Oil Production Engineering Technology and Equipment (1)
Liao Mozhi/Offshore Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Professional Committee of China Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering Research Society
海洋石油钻井、完井采油工程装备是勘探、开发井的钻井、完井采油必需的关键手段；掌握这些装备的技术 及钻井、完井采油工艺技术，是获取海洋油气的关键所在。笔者积近四+年海洋石油勘探、开发装备设计、制造 与工程管理的实践经验总结编撰成书，并分期在我刊独家刊登，希望对我国近一步扩大海洋油气勘探开发有所帮助。以下内容节选自《海洋石油钻井采油工程技术与装备》一书序言概论(一)。
Offshore oil drilling and completion oil production engineering equipment is the key means necessary for exploration and development well drilling and completion oil production; mastering the technology of these equipment and drilling and completion oil production technology is the key to obtaining offshore oil and gas. The author has accumulated nearly four years of practical experience in offshore oil exploration, development equipment design, manufacturing and engineering management, compiled a book, and published it exclusively in our journal in stages, hoping to help our country to further expand offshore oil and gas exploration and development. The following excerpts From the introduction to the book "Offshore Oil Drilling and Oil Production Engineering Technology and Equipment" (1).
南洋约占地球表面积的70.9%,人 /母类最后剩下的石油、天然气资 源储备在这里。海洋石油(包括天然 气，下同)开发是一项高投资、高技术 和高风险的系统工程；海洋石油开发 具有重要的政治意义和经济价值，也 是促进国家科技、经济发展的重要手段。海洋石油钻井(Drilling )、完井 (Completion )和采油(Production ) 工程技术与装备，主要包括海洋钻井采油装置(平台、船)、海洋勘探开发的 钻井、完井采油工程技术、工艺与相应的设备，它们均是获取海洋油气的关键技术与手段。
The South China Sea occupies about 70.9% of the earth's surface area, and the last remaining oil and natural gas resources of human/parent species are stored here. The development of offshore oil (including natural gas, the same below) is a systematic project with high investment, high technology and high risk; the development of offshore oil has important political and economic value, and is also an important means to promote national scientific and technological and economic development. Offshore oil drilling (Drilling), completion (Completion) and oil production (Production) engineering technology and equipment, mainly including offshore drilling and oil production equipment (platforms, ships), offshore exploration and development drilling, completion oil production engineering technology, process and corresponding equipment, they are the key technologies and means to obtain offshore oil and gas.
Offshore oil drilling and completion Definition of water depth and drilling depth
超深水(Ultra-Depth Water,简 称UDW )和超深井钻井(Ultra-Depth Drilling,简称UDD )是近十余年来海洋石油钻井、采油不断向深水和深地层 推进而形成、用以区分普通深水和普通 钻井井深的概念。
Ultra-Depth Water (UDW for short) and Ultra-Depth Drilling (UDD for short) are formed by the continuous advancement of offshore oil drilling and oil production to deep water and deep formations in the past ten years to distinguish ordinary deep water. and common drilling well depth concept.
目前世界对深海海域石油勘探开发 的界定，是以水深为依据。对于浅水与 深水的划分，国外有关的油公司或厂 商众说不一，有的以305米（1,000ft） 划分，有的以457米（1,500ft ）划 分,有的以610米（2,000ft ）划分，又 有的则以500米刻分。据2002年在 巴西召开的世界石油大会报导：油 气勘探开发水深的界定是：400米以 内为常规水深，N400米-W1,5OO米 为深水（Depth Water,简称DW ）, ^1,500米（或5,000ft ）为超深水 （UDW） o另据国外相关报道，钻井 深度能力24,500米（相当15,000ft）- <7,000米（相当25.000ft ）为深井 钻井（Depth Drilling,简称DD ）； N7Q00米（相当^25,000ft）为超深 井钻井（UDD ）。本讲座则遂循本深 水（DW ）、超深水（UDW ）和深井 （DD ）、超深井（UDD ）这一界定进 行以下相关论述。
At present, the world's definition of oil exploration and development in deep sea areas is based on water depth. Regarding the division of shallow water and deep water, foreign oil companies or manufacturers have different opinions. Some are divided by 305 meters (1,000ft), some are divided by 457 meters (1,500ft), and some are divided by 610 meters (2,000ft). , and some are divided into 500 meters. According to the report of the World Petroleum Conference held in Brazil in 2002: the definition of oil and gas exploration and development water depth is: conventional water depth within 400 meters, N400 meters-W1,500 meters deep water (Depth Water, referred to as DW), ^1,500 meters (or 5,000 meters) ft) is ultra-deep water (UDW) o According to relevant foreign reports, the drilling depth capability is 24,500 meters (equivalent to 15,000ft) - <7,000 meters (equivalent to 25.000ft) for deep well drilling (Depth Drilling, referred to as DD); N7Q00 meters (equivalent to ^ 25,000ft) for ultra-deep well drilling (UDD). This lecture will follow the definition of deep water (DW), ultra-deep water (UDW), deep well (DD), and ultra-deep well (UDD) as follows.
Characteristics of Offshore Oil Exploration and Development
海洋石油（包括天然气，下同）勘 探开发的特点，即与陆地石油勘探开发 主要不同点是：海洋具有一层汹涌澎湃 的海水，而随着水深的增加，开发难度 骤増。故必须使用当代最先进的科学技术，包括造船技术、卫星定位与电子计 算机技术、现代机械、电机和液压技 术、现代环保和防腐蚀技术等综合技 术，以便解决海洋石油天然气开发所遇 到的茫茫大海中的定位、建立海上固定 平台或深海浮动式平台的泊位、解决浮 动状态下的海上钻井、完井、油气水分 离处理、废水排放和海上油气的储存和 输送等。要解决上述难题，必须采用高 技术和高额资金的投入。因此，海洋石 油天然气开发，无论在资金的投入和高 技术的应用和具体的实施工艺方面与陆 地石油开发均有很大不同。其主要不同 点是：
The characteristics of offshore oil (including natural gas, the same below) exploration and development, that is, the main difference from onshore oil exploration and development is that the ocean has a layer of turbulent seawater, and with the increase of water depth, the difficulty of development suddenly increases. Therefore, it is necessary to use the most advanced modern science and technology, including shipbuilding technology, satellite positioning and electronic computer technology, modern machinery, electrical and hydraulic technology, modern environmental protection and anti-corrosion technology and other comprehensive technologies, in order to solve the vast problems encountered in offshore oil and gas development. Positioning in the sea, establishing berths for offshore fixed platforms or deep-sea floating platforms, solving offshore drilling, completion, oil and gas water separation and treatment, waste water discharge, and offshore oil and gas storage and transportation in a floating state. To solve the above problems, we must adopt high technology and high capital investment. Therefore, offshore oil and gas development is very different from land oil development in terms of capital investment, application of high technology and specific implementation techniques. The main differences are:
一、 海洋地球物理勘探技术方法与 装备与陆地截然不同。如海洋地震勘探 必须采用专门的船舶，采用大功率、高 压空气压缩机组，駆动宽阵列和长阵列 的气枪，产生和释放高能星地展波，穿 透6,000米~9,000米的海底地层，由飘 浮在离水面一定深度的多道检波电缆接 收。而陆地则多用放炮或可控机械震动 的震源，其效率比海上低很多。
二、 海上钻勘探井和开发井，必须 采用专门的钻井平台（船）、大功率的 海洋钻机及适应船体升沉平移运动而保 持船位与钻压的专用钻井水下与水面 设备；其每口探井的成本要比陆地高 550倍；海上钻井采油的安全风险也 数倍于陆地。
三、 海上采油与集输均需适应海 洋的特殊环 境，而采用 与陆地差异 很大的高技 术性能的 采油、集输 工艺与装备（如各类生 产平台和海 底采油装置等）。
四、 海上钻井、采油作业者的作业 器材和生活物资均需用船舶或直升飞机 运送，受气象影响大，费用高。
五、 鉴于上述原因，它是一项高风 险、高技术、高投入的系统工程。
1. The technical methods and equipment of marine geophysical exploration are completely different from those of land. For example, marine seismic exploration must use special ships, high-power, high-pressure air compressor units, and air guns with wide arrays and long arrays to generate and release high-energy satellite-to-ground waves, penetrating 6,000 meters to 9,000 meters of seabed strata. It is received by a multi-channel detection cable floating at a certain depth above the water surface. On land, artillery or controllable mechanical vibration sources are often used, and their efficiency is much lower than at sea.
2. For offshore drilling of exploration wells and development wells, special drilling platforms (ships), high-power offshore drilling rigs, and special drilling underwater and surface equipment that are adapted to the heave and translational movement of the hull to maintain the ship's position and WOB must be used; The cost of exploratory wells is 550 times higher than on land; the safety risks of offshore drilling for oil production are also several times higher than on land.
3. Both offshore oil production and gathering and transportation need to adapt to the special environment of the ocean, and oil production, gathering and transportation technology and equipment (such as various production platforms and submarine oil production devices, etc.) with high technical performance are widely used.
4. The operating equipment and living materials of offshore drilling and oil extraction operators need to be transported by ships or helicopters, which are greatly affected by the weather and the cost is high.
5. In view of the above reasons, it is a high-risk, high-tech, high-investment system engineering.
海洋石油钻井、完井采 油总概念及其在海洋石 油勘探开发中的地位
General Concept of Offshore Oil Drilling, Completion and Production and Its Position in Offshore Oil Exploration and Development
海洋石油开发的总体阶段 是勘探（Exploration ）与开发 （Development）两个阶段。勘探阶段 主要是地球物理勘探（重点是二维、 三维与四维地震勘探）和随之的勘探 钻井，勘採钻井主要是利用移动式钻井 平台（如坐底式钻井平台、自升式钻井 平台、半潜式钻井平台、钻井浮船）在 经过地球物理勘探确认可能含有油气储 藏的区块和井位钻若干口勘探井，最终 通过地质录井、聖芯和井内油气测试等 综合手段及计算分析，必要时钻评价 井，以确定是否有开采价值的油气储 量：而开发阶段的四个主要内容是：开 发钻井、完井采油、油气分离处理和油 气集输。开发钻井：是继勘探钻井之 后，为开采石油所进行的钻井，它包括 钻生产井，和开采中后期钻调整井，而 钻生产井的方式有浮式钻井和平台钻井 两种，并可细分为海底基盘的预钻井 （Predrilling ）.自升式平台为井□平 钻井和两者采用的辅助平台钻井等；钻 井方法通常有丛式集束钻井、定向钻 井、水平钻井、井内多支钻井等。海洋 完井（Completion ）是把海底具有石 油或天然气的油气层通过己经完钻成井 的井中，以一定的作业程序和下入井内 的作业器具，通过射穿油气层，到控制 油气按照人们的意志从井中开采油气的 整个过程称为完井。即将已钻成的井孔，通过一系列井下作业，安装好井下 生产管柱和井口采油树，使其从地层中 具备产出油气的阶段称为完井，完井即 具备了采油的硬件条件；随之按油藏地 质家的规划，分别进行指定油层和井位 开启采油树阀门进行采油和随之进行的 油气分离处理、储存与外输油气。因 此，海洋石油钻井包括了钻勘探井、钻评价井和钻生产井；海洋完井采油主要 是在钻生产井完钻成井的井中进行上述 完井作业（含安装好井下生产管柱和井 口采油树）和采油。
The overall stage of offshore oil development is exploration and development. The exploration stage is mainly geophysical exploration (focusing on 2D, 3D and 4D seismic exploration) and subsequent exploration drilling. Exploration drilling mainly uses mobile drilling platforms (such as bottom drilling platforms, jack-up drilling platforms, Semi-submersible drilling platforms, drilling pontoons) drill several exploration wells in the blocks and well positions that may contain oil and gas reserves confirmed by geophysical exploration, and finally through comprehensive means and calculation analysis such as geological logging, holy core and in-well oil and gas testing, it is necessary to Drilling evaluation wells from time to time to determine whether there are valuable oil and gas reserves: The four main contents of the development stage are: development drilling, completion and oil production, oil and gas separation and processing, and oil and gas gathering and transportation. Development drilling: it is the drilling for oil exploitation after exploration drilling. It includes drilling production wells, and drilling adjustment wells in the middle and late stages of production. The methods of drilling production wells include floating drilling and platform drilling. It is divided into pre-drilling (Predrilling) of the subsea base. The jack-up platform is the well-level drilling and the auxiliary platform drilling used by the two; the drilling methods usually include cluster drilling, directional drilling, horizontal drilling, and multi-branch drilling in the well. Wait. Offshore completion (Completion) is to pass the oil and gas layer with oil or natural gas on the seabed through the well that has been drilled, and use certain operating procedures and operating equipment to go into the well, through the oil and gas layer, to control the oil and gas according to people's needs. The whole process of extracting oil and gas from a well is called completion. The wellbore that has been drilled, through a series of downhole operations, the downhole production string and the wellhead Christmas tree are installed, so that the stage of producing oil and gas from the formation is called completion, and the completion of the well has the hardware conditions for oil production. Then, according to the plan of the reservoir geologist, the designated oil layer and well position are respectively opened to open the Christmas tree valve for oil recovery and the subsequent oil and gas separation, processing, storage and export of oil and gas. Therefore, offshore oil drilling includes drilling exploration wells, drilling evaluation wells and drilling production wells; offshore oil production is mainly performed in the wells that have been drilled and completed in production wells (including the installation of downhole production strings and wellhead production). tree) and oil extraction.
因此，海洋石油钻井和完井采油正 是勘探与开发这两个阶段的关键而核 心的工程内容。它是这两个阶段中技术先进程度最高、装备最复杂、作业 难度最高、投资最大、风险也最高的 关键环节。
Therefore, offshore oil drilling and well completion production are the key and core engineering contents in the two stages of exploration and development. It is the key link with the most advanced technology, the most complex equipment, the most difficult operation, the largest investment and the highest risk among these two stages.
Main technologies and equipment involved in offshore oil drilling, completion and production
（1）海洋石油钻井、完井采油工 程技术与装备涉及的现代高精尖科学 技术。
海洋石油钻井、完井釆油工程技术 与装备综合采用了现代高精尖科学技术 包括：高精度卫星测量、定位与通讯技 术；超深钻井与定向钻井和水平钻井技 术（含钻机之顶部驱动技术、井内动力 钻井装备、随钻测量（MWD ）及地质 导向钻井技术（LWD ）、多支井钻井 技术等）；深海动力定位装备与技术； 高性能海底遥控机械手（如ROV等） 装备与技术；大型、高寿命双燃料燃气 轮机、天然气压缩机等设计、制造技 术；高强度、高性能钢管、结构钢之 生产、焊接装备与技术；大型结构之海 上浮吊吊装、水下打桩装备与技术；远 程遥控平台无值守生产装备与技术；高 性能、高可靠性大洋深海平台计算机设 计、制造技术；海底钻井采油系统设 计、制造技术。
（2 ）海洋石油钻井、完井采油涉 及的主要工程装备系统。
海洋石油钻井、完井采油涉及的主 要工程装备系统，包括海洋石油开发除 油气水分离处理、油汽集输以外的所有 系统。现以表1列出海洋石油钻井、采 油涉及的主要工程装备系统并说明。
(1) Modern high-precision science and technology involved in offshore oil drilling, completion and oil production engineering technology and equipment.
Offshore oil drilling, well completion and oil drilling engineering technology and equipment have comprehensively adopted modern high-precision science and technology, including: high-precision satellite measurement, positioning and communication technology; ultra-deep drilling and directional drilling and horizontal drilling technology (including top drive technology for drilling rigs) , in-well dynamic drilling equipment, measurement while drilling (MWD) and geosteering drilling technology (LWD), multi-lateral well drilling technology, etc.); deep-sea dynamic positioning equipment and technology; high-performance submarine remote control manipulator (such as ROV, etc.) equipment and technology; Design and manufacturing technologies for large-scale, long-life dual-fuel gas turbines, natural gas compressors, etc.; production, welding equipment and technology for high-strength, high-performance steel pipes and structural steels; offshore floating hoisting and underwater piling equipment and technologies for large-scale structures; remote Remote control platform unattended production equipment and technology; high-performance, high-reliability ocean deep-sea platform computer design and manufacturing technology; submarine drilling and oil production system design and manufacturing technology.
(2) Main engineering equipment systems involved in offshore oil drilling, completion and production.
The main engineering equipment systems involved in offshore oil drilling, well completion and oil production include all systems except for oil and gas water separation and processing, and oil and gas gathering and transportation in offshore oil development. The main engineering equipment systems involved in offshore oil drilling and oil production are listed and explained in Table 1.
(3) Main supporting engineering equipment systems involved in offshore oil drilling, completion and production.
The main supporting engineering equipment involved in offshore oil drilling and oil production is described in Table 2.
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Keywords关键词:海洋石油钻井 采油工程技术与装备；海洋石油钻井、完井釆油水深和钻井深度的界定；海洋石油勘探开发的特点；海洋石油钻井、完井采 油总概念及其在海洋石 油勘探开发中的地位；海洋石油钻井、完井采油 涉及的主要技术与装备.Offshore oil drilling and oil production engineering technology and equipment; definition of water depth and drilling depth for offshore oil drilling and completion; characteristics of offshore oil exploration and development; ;Main technologies and equipment involved in offshore oil drilling, completion and production.
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