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Emerging Coiled Tubing Drilling Technology (2)
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Emerging Coiled Tubing Drilling Technology (2)

                                               Emerging Coiled Tubing Drilling Technology (2)

                                                                   新兴的连续油管钻井技术(二)

 

Sun Zhenchun/China National Petroleum Corporation Consulting Center Senior Expert, Professor-level Senior Engineer

He Lixin / Oran (Beijing) Petroleum Technology Company

孙振纯/中国石油天然气集团公司咨询中心 资深专家、教授级高工

何立新/奥兰(北京)石油技术公司

The previous article introduced the development and application of coiled tubing drilling technology. From this issue, it will focus on some important equipment of this technology.

上期文章介绍了连续油管钻井技术的发展及应用情况,从本期起,重点介绍该技术的一些重要设备。

Basic Equipment for Coiled Tubing Drilling

连续油管钻井的基本设备

The basic coiled tubing equipment used by most coiled tubing drilling operators is very similar to workover services (Picture 1). In some cases, individual equipment may need to be modified or replaced to suit specific applications. The trend towards the use of larger diameter coiled tubing in coiled tubing drilling has resulted in very different sizes of drilling equipment and workover equipment. The main basic equipment is introduced as follows.

大多数连续油管钻井作业者所用的连续油管基本设备与修井服务很相似(图1)在某些情况下,个别设备或许要加以改进或更换,以便适应特殊用途。连续油管钻井中使用较大直径连续油管的趋势导致钻井设备的尺寸与修井设备尺寸很不相同。主要基本设备简介如下。

Coiled Tubing Drum The primary function of the coiled tubing drum is to safely protect and store the coiled tubing (Picture 2). This is achieved by avoiding excessive damage from fatigue (bending) of the pipe string or mechanical damage. A flexible elbow is usually attached to the drum so that the drum can pump fluid through the coiled tubing during rotation. For 1000 CTD operations, coiled tubing, take-over plate and collector assemblies with cables inside are required so that the cables in the coiled tubing string are connected to the ground through rotating drums (cable elbows/collectors). In addition to the hydraulic fittings that operate the drive motors, brakes, and guides (pipe runners) systems that wind the pipes, the drums used for CTD operations are often equipped with detection equipment and connectors (such as pressure detection sensors for MWD mud pulse technology, or continuous Tubing string testing equipment such as diameter and ovality testing devices).

连续油管滚筒 连续油管滚筒的主要功能是安全地保护和储存连续油管(图2)。这通过避免管柱疲劳(弯曲)或机械损伤造成的过分损坏而实现。滚筒上通常连接活动弯头,使得滚筒在转动过程中能通过连续油管泵送流体。对千CTD作业,需要内部装有电缆的连续油管、接管板和收集器总成,使得连续油管柱中的电缆通过转动的滚筒(电缆弯头/收集器)连接至地面。除了操作驱动马达、刹车和缠绕管子的导向装置(排管器)系统的液压管件外,CTD作业用的滚筒上通常安装检测设备和连接器(例如MWD泥浆脉冲技术用的压力检测传感器,或连续油管柱检测设备如直径和椭圆度检测装置)。

The theoretical capacity of continuous oil management of the drum (Picture 3). It can be calculated by the following formula. The assumption is that the tube wraps well over the entire drum. It is practically difficult to achieve this level and a margin must be left in order to keep the capacity of the drum within practical limits.

L=(A+C) ABK

In the formula, L-pipe capacity (feet); A-pipe stacking height (inch); B-width between flanges at both ends of the drum (inch); C-roller mandrel diameter (inch); K-different pipe sizes K value (ft/in3).

K values for different tube sizes (see Table 1).

滚筒的连续油管理论容量(图3)。能利用下式计算。其假设条件是管子在整个滚筒上缠绕得很好。实际上难以达到这种程度,必须留有余量,以便保持滚筒的容量在实际的限度内。

L=(A+C) ABK

式中,L-管子容量(英尺);A-管子堆叠高度(英寸); B-滚筒两端法兰之间宽度(英寸);C-滚筒芯轴直径(英寸);K-不同管子尺寸的K值(英尺/英寸3

不同管子尺寸的K值为(见表1)。

The coiled tubing can be properly arranged on the drum by the use of the drive motor and the pipe racker. Using a roller with a larger radius can significantly increase the life of the coiled tubing. Recommended roll mandrel radii are shown in Table 2.

利用驱动马达和排管器可将连续油管合适地排布在滚筒上。采用半径较大的滚筒能显著增加连续油管的寿命。推荐的滚筒芯轴半径见表2

Coiled Tubing Even basic CTD operations require high performance coiled tubing strings. For example, if the drilling operation requires multiple trips and trips of the coiled tubing string in the same wellbore, the fatigue of the coiled tubing string will build up rapidly. In addition, the likelihood of stuck tubing during CTD operations is higher than that of most conventional workover operations. bigger. Not only does this mean that the coiled tubing string must perform optimally, but the operator must know the operating conditions limits of the drilling coiled tubing string at all times. There is always a desire to improve the yield stress of the coiled tubing and possibly the use of novel materials such as titanium alloys, composite materials and ceramics, etc., in order to broaden the drilling depth limit and better monitor and understand the coiled tubing at different pressures and temperatures. Fatigue life with cyclic use. Computer models have been used to analyze pipe fatigue life and as a coiled tubing monitoring system in drilling.

连续油管即便基本的CTD作业也需要高性能连续油管柱。例如,若钻井作业需要在同一井眼中多次起、下连续油管柱,那么连续油管柱的疲劳便会快速积累,另外,CTD作业过程中卡住管柱的可能性比大多数常规修井作业更大。这不仅意味着连续油管柱的性能必须最佳,而且操作人员任何时候都必须知道钻井连续油管柱的工作条件限度。人们总是希望改善连续油管的屈服应力以及可能使用新奇的材料如象钛合金、 合成材料和陶瓷制品等,目的在于拓宽钻井深度限度,更好地监测和了解连续油管在不同的压力和温度下循环使用的疲劳寿命。计算机模型已用于分析管子疲劳寿命,并在钻井中用作连续油管监测系统。

Drilling new and directional wells typically uses 2-3/8" or 2-7/8" coiled tubing. In recent years, most vertical wells have been drilled with 2" coiled tubing, and most vertical new wells have been drilled with 2-7/8" coiled tubing. Coiled tubing used in drilling operations has a maximum OD of 3-1/2", and newer hybrid drilling systems use 3-1/4" OD coiled tubing as standard.

钻新井和定向井通常使用2-3/8”2-7/8"连续油管。近年来,大部分垂直井加深钻井使用2"连续油管,大部分垂直新井钻井使用2-7/8"连续油管。钻井作业使用的连续油管的最大外径为3-1/2",新型的混合式钻井系统使用3-1/4"外径的连续油管作为标准配置。

For almost all drilling operations, it is recommended that the tubing string be at least 0.156" thick and be constructed of material with a yield strength of 70,000 psi or 80,000 psi. However, for drilling deeper vertical wells or extending longer horizontal wells, a 100,000 psi yield strength may be required. Or 110,000 psi material. For some wells, tapered tubing with wall thickness tapering from 0.190" to 0.125" may be required.

对于几乎所有钻井作业,推荐的管柱壁厚至少0.156",采用屈服强度为70000psi80000psi的材料制造。然而,对于钻较深的垂直井或延伸较长的水平井,或需要屈服强度为100000psi110000psi的材料制造。对于有些井,可能需要使用管壁厚度从0.190"逐渐减薄至0.125"的锥形管柱。

Typically, for a given drilling operation, coiled tubing is sized between tube life (smaller size tubing has longer cycle life, but lower strength and limited flow) and flow cross section (larger size tubing A compromise between higher strength and larger flow cross section, but shorter cycle life). As a result, CTDs typically use 2-3/8" or 2-7/8" coiled tubing. Also, consider the amount of coiled tubing that can be wound on a given drum to the desired depth or the maximum weight the crane can support.

通常,对于给定的钻井作业,连续油管的尺寸是在管子寿命(较小尺寸的管子具有较长的循环寿命,但具有较低的强度和有限的流量)和流通截面(较大尺寸的管子具有较高的强度和较大的流通截面,但具有较短的循环寿命)之间采取折衷。其结果,CTD通常使用2-3/8"2-7/8"连续油管。另外,需要考虑的是,在一个给定的滚筒上能缠绕的达到所需深度的连续油管的数量或起重机能支撑的最大重量。

During the drilling design phase, the optimal size, wall thickness and yield strength of the coiled tubing are determined using coiled tubing simulation software and well data relative to the well intended to be drilled.

在钻井设计阶段,连续油管的最佳尺寸、壁厚和屈服强度是利用连续油管模拟软件以及打算要钻的井的相关井的资料确定的。

If the coiled tubing parameters cannot be determined by computer model selection, the following recommended parameters can be considered:

如果不能利用计算机摸型选择确定连续油管参数,可以考虑下列推荐参数:

1. Internal pressure limit: the maximum pump pressure during the operation of the coiled tubing is 4000psi; the maximum pump pressure when the coiled tubing is stationary is 5000psi. 2. The maximum breaking pressure difference is 1500psi. 3. The maximum recommended wellhead pressure is 1500psi. 4. The maximum tensile limit of coiled tubing is 80% of the yield strength published by the manufacturer. 5. Diameter and ovality of coiled tubing: the maximum outer diameter is 106% of the nominal diameter of the coiled tubing; the minimum outer diameter is 96% of the nominal diameter of the coiled tubing.

1.内部压力限度:续管运行过程中的最大泵压为4000psi;连续油管处于静止时的最大泵压为5000psi2.最大破坏压差为1500psi3.最大推荐井口压力为1500psi4.连续油管最大拉力限度为制造厂公布的屈服强度的80%5.连续油管直径和椭圆度:最大外径为连续油管公称直径的106%;最小外径为连续油管公称直径的96%

The industry has invested a lot of time and effort into studying the lateral length limit of coiled tubing drilling horizontal wells. The primary factor controlling the length of wellbore that can be drilled by coiled tubing is coiled tubing bending. A slender pipe in a highly deviated wellbore or a horizontal wellbore will become sinusoidally bent under a certain sinusoidal force:

Fcrs = 2 x ( E x I x W ) 1/2

业界已经投入了大量的时间和精力来研究连续油管钻水平井的侧向长度限度问题。控制连续油管能钻的井眼的长度的主要因素是连续油管的弯曲。细长的管子在大斜度井眼或水平井眼中,在一定的正弦力的作用下将会变成正弦弯曲:

Fcrs = 2 x ( E x I x W ) 1/2 

In the formula, Fcrs is the critical force (lbf); E is Young's modulus, 30 x 106 (psi); I is the moment of inertia (in4); W is the weight of the tubing in the mud (lb/ft); Dh-Dp is the radial clearance (in).

式中,Fcrs为临界力(lbf)E为扬氏模数,30 x 106 (psi)I为惯性矩(in4)W为油管在泥浆中的重量(lb/ft)Dh-Dp为径向间隙(in)

In the case of sinusoidal bending, only a small amount of weight is transferred to the drill. When the axial force reaches a second, larger critical value, Fcriu (approximately 1.4 times larger than Fcrs), helical bending occurs. In the final stage, helical locking occurs and no force can be transmitted to the bit, at which point the coiled tubing is no longer advancing along the horizontal wellbore.

在正弦弯曲情况下,只有少量的重量能传递到钻头上。当轴向力达到第二个更大的临界值Fcriu(大约比Fcrs1.4倍)时,将出现螺旋状弯曲。在最后阶段,发生螺旋锁定,没有任何作用力能传递到钻头上,此时,连续油管不再沿水平井眼推进了。

In order to maximize the horizontal wellbore drilled by the coiled tubing, every effort should be made to: keep the wellbore clean and free of cuttings deposits; maximize the density of the drilling fluid; and minimize dogleg severity (wellbore curvature).

为了使连续油管钻出的水平井眼最长,应尽力做到:保持井眼干净,不要沉积岩屑;使钻井液的密度达到最大;使狗腿严重度(井眼曲率)降至最小。

The second factor controlling the length of the horizontal section is the inability to install weighted tubing (drill collars/weighted drill pipe) above the build-up point in coiled tubing drilling. One option to overcome these limitations is to use a tapered coiled tubing string.

控制水平井段长度的第二个因素是不能在连续油管钻井的造斜点以上部位安装加重管(钻铤/加重钻杆)。克服这些限制因素的一种选择是采用锥型连续油管柱。

Injector Head The injector head (Picture 5) provides the power and traction required to raise and lower coiled tubing in the wellbore. The injection head has two traction chains running in opposite directions and is hydraulically driven. Clamp blocks are installed on the drag chain for running coiled tubing into and out of the well. When the coiled tubing is in the well, the injection head supports the full weight of the coiled tubing.

注入头 注入头(图5)提供井筒中起、下连续油管所需的动力和牵引力。注入头有两条运转方向相反的牵引链条,由液压驱动。牵引链条上安装夹块,用于将连续油管下入井中,以及将它从井中起出来。当连续油管在井中时,注入头支撑连续油管的全部重量。

The CTU operator needs to have complete control over the movement of the coiled tubing string using several hydraulic systemsan important feature because drilling loads must be carefully controlled during CTD.

CTU操作者要能利用几个液压系统完全控制连续油管柱的移动---这个特性很重要,因为CTD过程中必须仔细控制钻义负荷。

The pulling force of the injection head for drilling is at least 60,000 lbs. The main technical performance parameters of the commonly used Hydra Rig injectors are listed in Table 3.

钻井用的注入头的拉力至少为60000磅。常用的Hydra Rig注入头的主要技术性能参数列入表3

The radius of the gooseneck has a great influence on the life of the coiled tubing. About 75% of coiled tubing fatigue and deformation are related to goosenecks. The large radius of the gooseneck is beneficial to prolong the life of the coiled tubing. Recommended gooseneck radii are listed in Table 2.

鹅颈架的半径大小对连续油管的寿命有很大的影响。大约75%的连续油管疲劳和变形与鹅颈架相关。鹅颈架的半径大有利于延长连续油管的寿命。推荐的鹅颈架半径列如表2。

Power Unit The function of the power unit is to provide power to operate the CTU and primary/secondary pressure control systems such as blowout boxes and BOP systems. In addition to providing hydraulic power when the equipment is running, the power unit is equipped with an energy storage device, which can operate the pressure control device within a certain limit after the engine is stopped. During drilling, if non-standard equipment or auxiliary equipment is to be powered by the CTD power unit, it should be confirmed that the power unit output is appropriate and that the pressure and flow rates are matched.

动力装置 动力装置的功能是给操CTU和一次/二次压力控制系统(例如防喷盒和BOP系统)提供动力。动力装除在设备运行时提供液压动力外,它装有储能设备,能在发动机停机后在一定限度操作压力控制设备。在钻井过程中,如果非标准设备或辅助设备要由CTD动力装置提供动力,应当确认动力装置的输出功率是合适的,压力和流动速率是匹配的。

Most CTD operations are long-running and therefore require proper inspection and maintenance of the power plant during drilling, such as adding fuel oil, checking lubrication, etc.

大多数CTD作业待续时间长,因此要规定在钻井过程中要适当地检查和维护动力装置,例如添加燃料油、检查润滑情况等。

All CTD operations on cranes require some equipment to lift, move and place the drilling tool (BHA). Local conditions and equipment configuration will determine the size (height) and lifting capacity of the crane. A crane is often used to place the injector on top of the BOP and then hang the injector in place. The boom should be long enough to bury a 40-foot BHA (drilling a vertical hole/milling casing) or a 65-foot BHA (drilling a directional hole) above the support.

起重机所有CTD作业均需要某些吊升、移动和安放钻井工具(BHA)的设备。当地条件以及设备构型将决定起重机的尺寸(高度)和起重能力。起重机常用于将注入头安放在BOP的顶部,然后就地吊着注入头。吊臂应足够长,要能在支座之上处埋40英尺长的BHA(钻直井/铣套管)65尺长的BHA(钻定向井)。

Pedestals For a specific drilling project, the CTD engineer must determine if a plinth is required and its size and type. The base (Figure 5) is used to increase the stability of the wellhead equipment. Its main features are:

支座 针对具体的钻井项目,CTD工程师必须确定是否需要基座以及其规格和类型。基座(图5)用于加大井口设备的稳定性。它的主要特点是:

1. Raise the work above the wellhead equipment for easy access to the wellhead; 2. Use to support the injection head without a crane, raise/lower the injection head position for easy installation. 3. When installing the BHA, allow the injection head to translate away/return to the wellhead; 4. Provide a safe working platform for the operator when hoisting the injection head or BHA; 5. Support the BHA/pipe during installation operations.

1.将工作而升至高于井口设备,以便容易接近井口;2.在没有起重机的情况下用于支撑注入头,升高/降低注入头位置以便于安装。3.当安装BHA时,允许注入头平移离开/返回井口;4.在吊装注入头或BHA时给作人员提供安全的工作平台;5.在安装操作时,可以支BHA/管子。

The support should be designed so that its height can be adjusted within certain limits to suit the particular wellhead and surrounding conditions. Usually, the legs of the stand are fixed after they are adjusted to the proper height.

支座要设计得能在一定限度内调节其高度,以适应特殊的井口和周围条件。通常,支座的支腿在调节至合适高度后加以固定。

One of the more complex CTD mounts is the hybrid device, or jack mount. Its structure is that there is a platform on the base that is raised/lowered by a hydraulic cylinder. The feature of this type of base is that the height of the table can be adjusted freely and can be used to raise and lower pipes, reducing the reliance on heavy-duty cranes or derricks.

一种比较复杂的CTD基座是混合型装置,或千斤顶支座。其结构是在底座上有一个利用液缸升/降低的平台。这种基座的特点是工作台高度可自由调节,并可用来起下管子,减少对于大载荷起重机或井架的依赖。

 

      Ensure safe pipe loading and unloading equipment

      确保安全的管子上卸设备

Pipe loading and unloading equipment is used to help ensure safe and proper loading and unloading of pipe and tools such as drill collars, tubing, couplings, casing couplings, and the like. For CTD operations, the pipe loading and unloading equipment used in conventional drilling needs to be modified or reduced in size in order to operate efficiently.

管子上卸设备用于帮助确保安全和正确上卸管子和工具例如钻铤、油管、接箍、套管接箍等。常规钻井使用的管子上卸设备要用于CTD作业,需要做一些小的改进,或者减小尺寸,以便于有效地操作。

 

       Blowout Preventer (BOP) System for Well Control

       用于井控的防喷器(BOP)系统

The configuration of the BOP equipment required for CTD operations depends largely on the type of operation and the "worst-case" conditions that the operation is expected to encounter. There are several BOP systems with very different combinations. One or more of the following scenarios are encountered in most CTD operations:

CTD作业所BOP设备,其结构很大程度上取决于作业类型和预料作业可能遇到的“最恶劣情”的条件。有组合型式很不相的几种BOP系统。下述的一种或几种情景会在大多数CTD作业中遇到:

1. Low pressure diverter system---used when drilling new wellbore in shallow layers containing harmful gas. 2. The drill bit is smaller than the inner diameter of the CT four-ram BOP---the drill can pass through the four-ram BOP. When drilling deviated wells, the curved shell motor can further limit the outside diameter of the drill bit. Under normal circumstances, the maximum outer diameter of the drill bit for drilling directional wells is 3-7/8". 3. The drill bit is larger than the inner diameter of the CT four-ram BOP---the bit cannot pass through the four-ram BOP. 4. Hybrid tripping/running pipe Operation --- Requires BOP to fit the size of tubing/casing to be operated. 5. Operating BHA under underbalanced conditions --- Requires specially constructed BOP to accommodate gas well conditions and to control wellbore pressure.

1.低压分流系统---在含有害气体的浅层钻新井眼时使用。2.钻头小于CT四闸板BOP内径---钻头能通过四闸板BOP。若钻斜井,弯壳马达会进一步限制钻头外径。一般情况下,钻定向井的钻头的最大外径为3-7/8"3.钻头大于CT四阐板BOP内径---钻头不能通过四闸板BOP4.混合型起/下管操作---需要BOP适合要作的油管/套管的尺寸。5。欠平衡条件下操BHA---需要特殊结构BOP以适应充气井条件并能控制井筒压力。

Requirements for basic well control equipment are as follows: suppress wellbore pressure and fluids, such as providing primary containment (blowout preventer box); be able to circulate under controlled conditions, such as through drilling strings or choke manifolds; return fluids from the wellbore Or the separated product is diverted to a safe area for processing or storage; continuous monitoring of drilling fluid performance, flow rate and pressure.

对基本井控设备的要求如下:抑制井筒压力和流体,例如提供初级封闭(防喷盒);能在控制条件下进行循环,例如经由钻井管柱或节流管汇循环;将井筒返出流体或分离产物引流到安全区域进行处理或储存;连续监测钻井液的性能、流速和压力。

For most CTD jobs, a BOP pressure rating of 5000 psi is suitable. However, the operating pressure rating must exceed the expected bottom hole pressure. The BOP size (or diameter) depends on the size of the wellbore or planned completion. The commonly used coiled tubing BOP system is a 4" (inner diameter) four ram structure. Larger BOP sizes (eg 5" to 7-1/16 ) is not commonly used; if used, BOPs of single or double ram construction are usually used. In most cases, at least a semi-closed ram and a shear/full-closed ram BOP are required, and often include an annular BOP to Provides applicability to a variety of jobs. The annular BOP can seal any diameter of pipe or tool, from fully closed to fully open.

大部分CTD作业,BOP的压力等级为5000psi是合适的然而,作压力等级必须超过预计的井底压力。BOP尺寸(或通径)取决于井眼或计划完井尺寸,通常使用的连续油管BOP系统为4”(内径)四闸板结构。更大的BOP尺寸(例如5"7-1/16”)不常用;若用,通常使用单闸板或双阐板结构的防喷器。大多数情况下,至少需要半封闸板和剪切/全封闸板BOP并且常常包括环形BOP以提供对多种作业的适用性。环形BOP能封闭任何直径的管子或工具,从全封状态到全开状态。

The well control equipment used in most CTD operations is very similar to that used in workover operations. In some cases, individual components can be modified or replaced to suit specific applications, but often devices for different applications can be used interchangeably. The main components of the BOP are as follows:

大多数CTD作业使用的井控设备与修井作业所用的井控设备很相似。在某些情况下,个别组件可以加以改进或更换以适合特殊应用,但通常不同应用的设备可以互换使用。BOP的主要组件如下:

BOP The side door BOP is the most commonly used BOP for CTD operations. It has good sealing performance, and its seals can be easily replaced during coiled tubing operations.

防喷盒 侧门防喷盒是CTD作业最常用的防喷盒。它的封闭性能好,而且能在连续油管作业过程中容易更换其密封件。

The standard quadruple BOP (Figure 6) provides suitable functionality and is easy to install and operate if the inside diameter is suitable. Larger boreholes typically require a 7-1/16" BOP.

四阐板BOP 如果内径合适,标准的四阐板BOP6)提供了合适的功能,并且安装和操作方便。较大的井眼通常需要使用7-1/16"BOP

Single Ram/Double Ram BOP When drilling operations require a diameter larger than 5-1/8", the BOP group can be assembled by 5-1/8" or 7-1/16" single or double rams made.

单闸板/双闸板BOP 当钻井作业需耍通径大于5-1/8"BOP组可以5-1/8"7-1/16"的单阐板或双闸板装配而成

Ring BOP Ring BOP is extremely adaptable and can accommodate a wide range of tool sizes.

环形BOP 环形BOP的适用性极强,能适应的工具尺寸的范围宽

Other BOP Equipment Other BOP equipment used to connect, monitor or operate pressure control equipment groups include: Kill Manifolds, Choke Manifolds, Reverse Circulation Manifolds, BOP Controllers and Instruments, Mud Crosses/Risers.

其它BOP设备 用于连接、监测或操作压力控制设备组的其它BOP设备包括:压井管汇、节流管汇、反循环管汇、BOP控制器和仪表、泥浆四通/管。

The coiled tubing is sealed by a blowout preventer box located on top of the blowout preventer as it travels in the well. The blowout preventer keeps the annular space sealed during the drilling process and during the tripping of the string in the wellbore. In order to facilitate the use of the bottom hole tool combination, it is necessary to install the blowout preventer and the riser between the blowout preventer and the injection head.

连续油管在井中运移时由位于防喷器顶部的防喷盒加以密封。在钻井过程中和在井筒中起下管柱过程中,防喷盒一直保持着环形空间的密封。为了便于使用井底工具组合,防喷器与注入头之间有必要安装防喷管和立管。

 

Announcement of the next content:

下期内容预告:

Coiled tubing drilling auxiliary equipment, testing equipment, bottom hole assembly (BHA)

连续油管钻井的辅助设备、检测设备、底部钻具组合(BHA)

 

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Keywords关键词:连续油管钻井,连续油管滚筒,连续油管理论容量,内部压力限度,正弦弯曲,注入头,动力装置,压力和流动速率,支座,混合型装置,管子上卸设备,防喷器(BOP)系统,防喷盒,四阐板BOP,单闸板/双闸板BOP,环形BOP,其它BOP设备,抑制井筒压力.

Coiled Tubing Drilling, Coiled Tubing Rollers, Coiled Tubing Theoretical Capacity, Internal Pressure Limits, Sinusoidal Bending, Injection Heads, Power Units, Pressure and Flow Rates, Bearings, Hybrid Units, Pipe Loading and Unloading Equipment, Blowout Preventer (BOP) Systems , Blowout preventer, four-stage BOP, single ram/double ram BOP, annular BOP, other BOP equipment, suppress wellbore pressure.

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Poster发布人:Clark Guo,CCSC Technology,Shanghai,China, 2022.09     Youtube: ClarkOilGas  

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