China needs to apply CO2 sequestration technology on a large scale
Editor's note: Practice has proved that CO2 capture and storage is a major measure to mitigate climate change. In addition, as a useful stimulation technique, in some mature fields, injecting CO2 into old wells can increase oil production. The CO2-EOR project also contributes to the development of CBM. Its economic feasibility is that the international oil price is above 30 US dollars per barrel. CO2 sequestration demonstration projects have already been carried out in various geological reservoirs around the world. In the future, there will be great development potential in China.
China needs to apply CO2 sequestration technology on a large scale
口Zhang Xinping Zhang Liang / China University of Petroleum (East China) Zheng Qiang / Shengli Oilfield Oil Production Research Institute
With the aggravation of the global greenhouse effect, the issue of CO2 emission has attracted more and more attention. In recent years, all countries have strengthened the research on CO2 emission reduction technology. Governments and scientific research organizations all over the world believe that CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology can be used to buffer theUnderstanding the greenhouse effect is of strategic importance. The main task of this technology is to capture the CO2 emitted in industry and then transport it to a suitable long-term storage. Then transport to a proper long-term storage The main process is from power plants, refineries, cement plants, etc., to long-term or permanent "landfills" deep underground. The options for underground storage include dry oil and gas. reservoirs, deep brine reservoirs, and unminable coal seams.
Demonstration projects carried out around the world
CO2 geological storage technology has a research history of more than ten years in developed countries. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the Weyburn project. Extensive and in-depth research has been carried out on the main links from general concepts, basic theories to the implementation of the system, and many demonstration projects have been carried out. The Weyburn Oilfield CO2 Storage Project in Canada is a truly competitive CO2 capture and storage project. Because it uses anthropogenic CO2 for EOR and sequestration. The CO2 used in the project is a by-product of the Beulah coal gasification plant in North Dakota, USA. The CO2 as a by-product is captured and transported to the weybnrn oil field in Kapala through a 320km pipeline. The coal gasification plant has been in a state of loss for a long time before. Since the plant built a CO2 transmission pipeline in September 2000, the CO2 discharged from the plant has brought in 150,000 US dollars of revenue per day, which has not only turned the plant into a profit, but also made the plant profitable. Get rid of the burden of CO2 pollutants emitted by coal gasification plants. For oil fields, the use of lower-cost CO2 has reduced the cost of oil per barrel to 16-18 US dollars, and the production of oil fields has also increased from 30,000 barrels per day in 2001 to 30,000 barrels per day at the peak in 2008. With a final enhanced recovery factor of 9.8%, the entire reservoir is expected to store 45.15 million tons of CO2. Therefore, it can be said that the successful operation of the project has achieved a win-win result for all parties.
Several countries such as Kl2B in the Netherlands, Sall creek in the United States, and Teapot Dome have also carried out CO2-EOR and storage demonstration projects. It has been confirmed that CO2 flooding can generally improve oil recovery by 7%-15%, prolong the production life of oil wells by 15-20 years, and 60% of the injected CO2 will be buried in the underground reservoir. In addition, studies have been carried out in saline aquifers, gas fields and coal fields. The Sleipner project in Norway is the first large CO2 project in the world. According to the European natural gas transmission and distribution network regulations, the content of CO2 in the gas delivered to users shall not exceed 2.5%. Therefore, before natural gas is delivered to users, CO2 must be Separated from it, normally the separated CO2 is emitted directly into the atmosphere, but Norway imposes a huge carbon tax on CO2 emissions, so consider injecting CO2 into the Utsira brine for storage. The In Salah project in Algeria is one of the largest CCS schemes in the world. It separates the excess CO2 from the natural gas and injects it into the gas field; the CSEMP project in Canada is to bury the CO2 in the coal field. Demonstration project studies are now being carried out in many countries.
荷兰的Kl2B、美国Sall creek、Teapot Dome等几个国家也进行了CO2-EOR和，埋存示范工程。经证实CO2驱一般可提高原油采收率7%- 15%，延长油井生产寿命15- 20年，注入的CO2会有60% 埋在地下储层中。此外，在盐水层、气田和煤田中也进行了研究。挪威的Sleipner工程是世界上第一个大的CO2工程，根据欧洲天然气输配管网规定输送给用户的气体中CO2的含量不 得超过2.5%，因此，在天然气在输送给用户前，要把CO2从其中分离出来，通常分离出来的CO2被直接排放到大气中，但是挪威对CO2的排放征收庞大的碳税，所以考虑把CO2注入到Utsira盐水层中埋存。阿尔及利亚In Salah工程是世界上辰大的CCS方案之一，它把天然气中过量的CO2分离出来，然后注入到气田中；加拿大的CSEMP项目是把CO2埋存在煤田中。现在很多国家都进行了示范项目研究。
my country has favorable storage conditions
Large-scale CO2 emission sources I am also a big CO2 emission country, but the CCS project mainly captures large-scale centralized emission sources. Statistics show that there are about 1,623 large-scale stationary CO2 emission sources with an annual emission of more than 1,000,000 tons in my country, and the total annual CO2 emission exceeds 3.8 billion tons, mainly concentrated in power plants, synthetic ammonia plants, cement plants, iron and steel plants, etc. The ratio is shown in Picture 2
At present, CO2 capture equipment has been established in some power plants, which can capture relatively pure CO2 in flue gas. For example, the CO2 capture demonstration project of Huaneng Beijing Thermal Power Plant has been successfully implemented; some factories that produce NH3 through coal gasification have Low-cost CO2 gas source, the CO2 produced by these factories cannot be used for production, and the excess CO2 is a relatively pure gas, which is stored. All these provide a good gas source for us to carry out low-cost CO2 sequestration.
Great storage potential Many large basins in my country affected by neotectonic movements have deposited a multi-layered sedimentary system, the number of layers is often not a few layers, but a dozen or even dozens of layers. The relative water barrier or weakly permeable layer between the layers constitutes a relatively good sealing condition. It is a good place for CO2 management.
It is estimated that there are more than 2,300 billion tons of CO2 storage capacity in 90 onshore sedimentary basins in my country. It is 4.6 billion tons in oil fields and 4.3 billion tons in gas fields. In addition, there are 16 geological formations in the offshore with a storage potential of 780 billion tons.
The vast majority of CO2 geological storage potential (whether in China or worldwide) is located in deep saline aquifers. China's deep saline aquifers account for more than 99% of the domestic deep geological resources. In depleted fields, unrecoverable natural gas.There is relatively little CO2 geological storage capacity in the deep coal seams; they are not only important resources for storing CO2, but also some of the reservoirs have the potential to produce oil and natural gas after CO2 injection. By sequestering CO2 in these oil and gas fields, an additional 7020MBO of oil can be produced, and an additional 16,146.6 billion cubic meters of coalbed methane can be produced in the coal fields, further enhancing China's energy security.
Economical and environmentally friendly use of CO2 technology
Although my country's storage research started late, the demonstration projects that have been implemented in foreign oilfields have provided us with a successful example of CO2 underground storage, and there are many places worth learning from. my country's oilfields have been exploited for many years, and the exploration and development of oil and gas layers is very high, and some geological experience has been accumulated, which can be related to CO2 geological storage, especially in CO2 recovery and injection. In the future, my country will apply CO2 geological storage technology on a large scale to reduce CO2 emissions and achieve the possibility of stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.
At present, my country has carried out CO2 and geological storage projects in Jilin Oilfield, which is similar to Canada's Weyburn Oilfield. The main purpose is to permanently store part of CO2 while injecting CO2 to improve recovery. CO2 separated from Tanaka.
The huge amount of CO2 emissions in my country has brought us a lot of political and economic pressure. We should make full use of successful foreign experience and achievements, combined with my country's CO2 emission sources and storage potential. Through the cooperation of the government, enterprises and research institutions, the problem of CO2 storage will be solved, and a new way of economical environmental protection and sustainable development will be opened up.
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CO2 storage technology, global greenhouse effect, deep brine reservoir, CO2 capture, sealing conditions, oil and gas, crude oil recovery, natural gas transmission and distribution network, storage conditions, sedimentary system, CO2 geological storage potential, buried research, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, economic and environmental protection, sustainable development
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Poster发布人: Clark Guo, CCSC Technology, Shanghai,Chian,2022.08 Youtuber:ClarOilGas
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