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Advanced technology resolves CO2 emission reduction crisis
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Advanced technology resolves CO2 emission reduction crisis

Advanced technology resolves CO2 emission reduction crisis

先进技术化解CO2减排危机

Zhang Xinping Zhang Wang Zhang Jianli/China University of Petroleum (East China)

张新平 张王 张建丽/中国石油大学 (华东)

 

With the high development of industry and people's dependence on fossil fuels, the emission of CO2 is increasing day by day, which produces a greenhouse effect and increases the global temperature. It is generally believed that when climate change is below 2°C, positive and negative effects are basically coexisting; once it exceeds 2°C, the positive effects are greatly reduced or do not exist; and when it reaches 3°C-4°C, it is basically negative. impact, and the effect of negative impact is significantly intensified. Almost all scientists believe that the increase in carbon dioxide emissions will bring more adverse consequences such as droughts, floods, land desertification, heat waves, diseases, rising sea levels and species extinction, resulting in serious environmental and ecological crises.

随着工业的高度发展和人们对化石燃料的依赖,CO2的排放量日益增加,产生温室效应,使全球温度升高。一般认为当气候变化在2℃以下,基本上是正面影响和负面影响共存;一旦超过了2℃,正面影响大幅减少,或不存在;而当达到3℃-4℃时,基本上都是负面影响,而且负面影响的效应明显加剧。几乎所有科学家都认为,二氧化碳排放量的增加,将带来更多的旱灾、水灾、土地沙漠化、热浪、疾病和海水水位上涨及物种灭绝等不良后果,导致严重的环境和生态危机。

In order to reduce CO2 emissions, slow down the greenhouse effect and protect the global environment, all countries in the world are making unremitting efforts. The world's first "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" to comprehensively control CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions stipulates that developed and developing countries have "common but differentiated responsibilities" for emission reduction; more in the "Kyoto Protocol" It puts forward specific emission reduction requirements for developed countries; now the Copenhagen Climate Conference has brought CO2 emission reduction to the forefront again, requiring both developed and developing countries to reduce emissions. The CO2 problem has caused serious political and economic pressure on countries.

为了减少CO2的排放量,减缓温室效应,保护地球环境,世界各国都在进行者不懈的努力。世界上第一个为全面控制CO2等温室气体排放的《联台国气候变化框架公约》规定发达和发展中国家对减排负有“共同但有区别的责任”;在《京都议定书》上更是对发达国家提出了具体的减排要求;现在哥本哈根气候会议的召开又—次把CO2减排提到了风口浪尖,要求发达国家和发展中国家都进行减排。CO2问题已经给各国造成了严重的政治和经济压力。

The current emission reduction measures are mainly to improve energy utilization, develop new energy and increase carbon sinks. These measures can alleviate the greenhouse effect to a certain extent, but there are certain limitations to solve the problem of a large amount of CO2 emissions within a certain period of time. Therefore, many scientists in developed countries have proposed CO2 capture and storage technologies, and believe that CO2 geological storage is the most realistic and effective way to reduce CO2 emissions.

       现在的减排措施主要是提高能源利用率、开发新能源以及增加碳汇等。这些措施可以在一定程度上缓解温室效应,但是要在一定时间内解决大量的CO2排放问题却有一定的限制性。所以,发达国家的很多科学家提了出CO2捕集与埋存技术,认为CO2地质埋存是当前CO2减排的最现实最有效的方法。

 

Capture one

The primary link of CO2 sequestration

捕集一

CO2埋存的首要环节

The basic idea of CO2 sequestration technology is to inject CO2 separated from centralized emission sources (power plants, steel plants, etc.) into deep underground formations with appropriate sealing conditions for isolation. It mainly includes the following links: First, the use of adsorption, absorption, low temperature and membrane systems and other technologies to capture and separate the waste gas from large-scale centralized emission sources (power plants, steel plants, etc.) to obtain pure CO2, which is compressed by compressors. Then it reaches the required state; then it is sent to the isolation site through a pipeline or other transportation methods; finally, the pressure is adjusted and injected into the deep underground, as shown in Picture 1.

        CO2埋存技术的基本思路是:把从集中排放源(发电厂 钢铁厂等)分离得到的CO2注入到地下深处具有适当封闭条件的地层中隔离起来。主要包括如下几个环节:首先是利用吸附、吸收、低温及膜系统等技术对大规模集中排放源(发电厂、钢铁厂等)的废气进行捕集和分离得到纯净的CO2,经压缩机压缩后达到要求的状态;再通过输送管道或其他输送方法送到隔离场地;最后,调整压力,注入地下深处,见图一。

Capture systems are generally divided into four categories: post-combustion capture systems, pre-combustion capture systems, oxy-combustion systems, and industrial processing. The capture technology currently being vigorously developed is mainly aimed at CO2 emitted by power stations. There are mainly three technical routes, as shown in Picture 2: post-combustion decarbonization, pre-combustion decarbonization and oxy-fuel combustion technology.

捕集系统通常分为四类:燃烧后捕集系统、燃烧前捕集系统、富氧燃烧系统和工业处理。目前正在大力开发的捕集技术主要是针对发电站排放的CO2,主要3条技术路线,如图2:燃烧后脱碳、燃烧前脱碳和富氧燃烧技术。

The post-combustion capture system is a system that captures CO2 from the fuel gas produced by the combustion of the fuel in the air; the pre-combustion capture system is to gasify the CO2-containing fuel into a fuel (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), and through the reaction The post-generated CO2 is collected; the oxygen-enriched combustion system burns the fuel in an oxygen-enriched environment, and the CO2 after combustion is easily separated.

       燃烧后捕集系统是从燃料在空气中燃烧后产生的燃料气中捕集CO2的系统;燃烧前捕集系统是将含CO2的燃料气化为燃料(氢气和一氧化碳的混合气),通过反应后生成的CO2被收集;富氧燃烧系统是将燃料在富氧环境中燃烧,燃烧后的CO2很容易被分离出来。

At present, there are five main methods for capturing CO2: adsorption method, absorption method, low temperature method, membrane system method, and hydrate method.

       目前捕集CO2主要有五种方法:吸附法、吸收法、低温法和膜系统法、水合物法。

 

Three major areas

Especially suitable for CO2 storage

三大领域

特别适用CO2埋存

As can be seen from Picture 2, the underground storage sites of CO2 mainly include oil and gas fields, coal fields and saline aquifers. The first two can increase the production of oil and gas and coalbed methane while sequestering them.

从图2中可以看出,CO2地下贮存场所主要有油气田、煤田和盐水层。前两种可以在埋存的同时提高油气和煤层气的产量。

CO2 is stored in oil and gas fields, and CO2 is injected into the oil and gas layers that have been exploited. Under high pressure conditions, CO2 promotes the flow of oil and gas to production wells, thereby increasing the recovery rate of oil and gas. Part of the CO2 dissolves in the unexploited oil and gas or is stored in the formation pores. In the past, some abandoned gas fields were used for backup storage of natural gas, and these related technologies can be used for CO2 storage. Currently, there has been commercial application of CO2 injection into nearby gas reservoirs for enhanced gas recovery (EGR) for geological storage. The technology is well understood, but the rollout is limited. Storing CO2 in depleted fields is inexpensive to develop, and traps have proven effective. As early as the early 1970s, CO2 was extracted from natural reservoirs in the western United States and transported by pipeline to Texas for injection into reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (IEA, 2003). Through CO2-EOR, the output of 8%-15% of the original reserves can be obtained, so that the total recovery factor can reach 50% on average, and 2.4-3 tons of CO2 can be stored to produce 1 ton of oil.

在油气田中埋存CO2,把CO2注入已开采过的油气层中,在高压条件下,CO2推动油气向生产井流动,从而提高油气的采出率。其中部分CO2融解于未能被开采的油气中或贮存于地层孔隙中。过去一些废弃的气田用于天然气的备用存储,这些相关技术可以用于CO2的存储。目前国际上,将CO2注入附近气藏增加气体采收率 (EGR)进行地质存储已经有商业应用。该技术已被充分了解,但推广数量有限。在衰竭油田中埋存CO2开发成本低,已经证明圈闭有效。早在上世纪70代初,从美国西部地区天然储层中提取出CO2,通过管道运输到德克萨斯州注入油藏进行强化采油(IEA,2003)。通过CO2-EOR可以获得8%-15%原始储量的产量,使总采收率平均达50%,存储2.4-3吨CO2可生产1吨油

       Buried in coal seams, in coal measure strata, there are generally coal seams abandoned for technical or economic reasons, such as unminable thin coal seams, deep coal seams buried beyond the final mining line, and coal seams with severe structural damage, etc. These unminable coal seams are another potential geological formation for sequestering CO2. When CO2 is injected into such a coal seam, similar to the process of using activated carbon to filter impurities in air and water, they diffuse in the pores of the coal seam and are eventually adsorbed by the coal body. Experiments have shown that the adsorption capacity of the coal surface for CO2 is about twice that of the adsorption capacity for methane. According to this characteristic, when CO2 is injected into the coal seam, it can effectively replace methane while sequestering CO2, so that the methane in the adsorbed state can be converted into a free state, which can greatly enhance the output rate of coalbed methane and improve the output of coalbed methane. 

       在煤层中埋存,在煤系地层中,普遍存在着因技术原因或经济原因而弃采的煤层,例如不可采的薄煤层,埋藏超过终采线的深部煤层和构造破坏严重的煤层等,这些无法开采的煤层是埋存CO2的另一个潜在的地质构造。当CO2注入到这样的煤层后,类似于利用活性碳过滤空气和水中杂质的过程,它们在煤层的孔隙中扩散,并最终被煤体吸附。有实验表明,煤体表面对CO2的吸附能力大约是对甲烷吸附能力的两倍。根据这一特性,当CO2被注入煤层时,可以在埋存CO2的同时,有效地替换甲烷,使吸附状态的甲烷转变成游离状态,可以大大增强煤层气的产出率,提高煤气层的产量。

Sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers, injection into deep saline aquifers Sequestration is to store CO2 in deep saline aquifers to prevent short-term or long-term (hundreds to thousands of years) release of CO2 into the atmosphere. It is technically feasible to inject CO2 into water layers, just like injecting CO2 into oil and gas fields for enhanced oil recovery. The demonstration project for sequestration of associated CO2 water layers in the Sleiper gas field in Norway is a good proof.

盐水层埋存CO2,注入深盐水层埋存是将CO2存储在深部盐水层中,防止CO2短期或长期(几百年至几千年)释放到大气中。注入水层就像将CO2注入油气田提高采收率一样,在技术上是可行的,挪威的Sleiper气田伴生CO2水层埋存示范工程就是一个很好的证明。

The brine layer is a sedimentary rock composed of carbonatite or sandstone with a certain porosity and permeability. The pores are filled with brine, and generally the upper part has a good trap structure. After CO2 is injected into the groundwater layer, it is buried in the stratum by dissolving, reacting with the rock minerals in the stratum and trapped by the good upper caprock.

盐水层是由碳酸岩或砂岩构成的沉积岩,具有一定的孔隙度和渗透率,孔隙中充满盐水,一般上部具有良好的圈闭结构。CO2注入地下水层后通过溶解,与地层中岩石矿物反应以及被上部良好盖层圈闭等方式埋存在地层中。

 

Delivery one

Technology areas that need to be broken through

输送一

亟待突破的技术领域

The CO2 delivery system is an important link between the capture and permanent storage sites. From the perspective of system optimization, the research on CO2 transportation technology is still insufficient, so the CO2 transportation process needs to be further optimized to maximize the energy efficiency and reduce the cost of the process.

CO2输送系统是连接捕集与永久储存地点的一个重要环节。从系统优化角度来说,对CO2输送技术的研究仍不够充分,因此需要对CO2输送过程进一步优化,使能量效率最大化,减少该过程的成本。

If the CO2 gas source is far away from the production site, the transportation method and the equipment used must be carefully selected according to the actual situation of the CO2 gas source and other factors. CO2 can be delivered in bulk by truck, rail or ship, or by pipeline. As with other gases, it is most convenient and economical to transport CO2 in a liquid or critical dense phase. The two preferred transport modes for CO2 are pipeline transport and tanker (specialized CO2 gas storage vessel) transport. Under normal circumstances, since the CO2 injection site is generally far from its recovery site, pipeline transportation is the most effective transportation method. For extremely long-distance maritime transportation, shipping may also be a more economical transportation method.

CO2气源距离生产现场较远,则必须根据CO2气源的实际情况等因素,仔细选择输送方式和所用设备。CO2可以以散装形式利用卡车、铁路或船舶,或通过管线输送。与其他气体一样,以液态或临界态的密集相形式输送CO2最方便与经济的。CO2首选的两种运输方式是管道运输和油轮(专门的CO2储气船)运输。通常情况下,由于CO2注入地点一般远离其回收地点,采用管道输送方式是最有效的输送方式,对于特度长距离的海上运输,船运可能也是比较经济的一种输送方式。

Based on the technology and experience of the petroleum industry, the drilling, completion and monitoring technologies of CO2 injection wells have a certain foundation. The design and construction of CO2 injection wells is very similar to the design and construction of gas injection wells in oil and gas extraction projects. The main difference is that the construction of CO2 injection wells requires higher pressure resistance and corrosion resistance of down-drilling components. The injection of CO2 in a single-phase state, generally in a supercritical state, is not only conducive to injection, but also inhibits the formation of hydrates.

基于石油工业的技术和经验,有关CO2注入井的钻井、完井与监控等技术已经有一定的基础。CO2注入井的设计施工与油气开采工程中的气体注入井设计施工很相似,主要区别在于CO2注入井施工对向下钻进部件材料的抗压、耐腐蚀的要求更高。要将CO2保持在单相状态注入,一般为超临界状态,既有利于注入,还可以抑制水合物的形成。

When CO2 is buried underground, the physical and chemical reactions of CO2 injected into the reservoir should be monitored, and the most important thing is to monitor the potential migration of CO2 inside and outside the reservoir. Collecting production data samples is the main way to monitor CO2 migration in the reservoir. "Sampling" provides data on downhole pressures, injected volumes, reservoir gases and fluids.

CO2埋入地下以后,还要监测储集层中注入CO2的物理和化学反应,最主要的是监测CO2在储集层内部和外部的潜在运移。采集生产数据样品是监测CO2在储 集层运移的主要方式抽样”提供了井下压力、注入体积、储层气体和流体的数据。

The greenhouse effect caused by the massive emission of CO2 has caused a series of environmental and ecological problems; it has also brought political and economic pressure to countries. The research found that the CO2 geological storage technology is feasible in solving the CO2 emission problem. As the most realistic and effective emission reduction method, CO2 capture and storage technology is increasingly favored by people.

CO2的大量排放引起的温室效应已经引起了一系列的环境和生态问题;也给各国带来政治和经济压力。经研究发现,CO2地质埋存技术在解决CO2排放问题上是可行的。作为最现实有效的减排方法,CO2捕集和埋存技术日益受到人们的青睐。

 

 

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Keywords关键词:CO2减排危机,温室效应,环境和生态危机,减排,政治和经济压力,提高源利用率,开发新能源,CO2存技术,捕集系统,燃烧后脱碳,燃烧前脱碳,富氧燃烧技术,富氧燃烧系统,盐水层埋存,煤层埋存,CO2输送系统,超临界状态.

CO2 emission reduction crisis, greenhouse effect, environmental and ecological crisis, emission reduction requirements, political and economic pressure, improving energy efficiency, developing new energy, CO2 capture and storage technology, capture system, post-combustion decarbonization, pre-combustion Decarbonization, Oxygen-enriched Combustion Technology, Oxygen-enriched Combustion System, Brine Sequestration, Coal Sequestration, CO2 Delivery System, Supercritical State.

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