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The exploration and development of combustible ice is booming in the world
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The exploration and development of combustible ice is booming in the world

Natural gas hydrate (commonly known as "combustible ice") resource exploration has attracted worldwide attention, and the world's natural gas hydrate reserves are about 2x10 cubic meters. The exploration and development of natural gas hydrates in the world is in the ascendant. Through the research on the status of exploration and development of natural gas hydrate resources in the world, to realize the optimal utilization of natural gas hydrate resources and improve the effect of exploration and development, it will surely provide a theoretical and practical basis for the high-level and high-efficiency development of global natural gas hydrate resources.

天然气水合物(俗称"可燃冰")资源勘探备受世界瞩目,世界天然气水合物储量约为2x10立方米.世界天然气水合物勘探开发方兴未艾.通过对世界天然气水合物资源勘探开发现状研究,实现天然气水合物资源 优化利用,改善勘探开发效果,必将为全球天然气水合物资源的高水平、高效益开发提供理论及实践依据。

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances consisting of a molecular structure of water surrounding solid methane. It is an ice crystal compound formed by filling or being bound in a cage-like water molecular structure by gaseous hydrocarbons (containing a small amount of CO2, H2R and other non-hydrocarbon molecules) mainly composed of methane and CH4.天然气水合物为水晶状物质,由包围 K着固体甲烷的水分子架构组成.是以甲烷CH4为主的气态烃类物质(含少量CO2H2R等非烃分子)充填或被束缚在笼状水分子结构中形成的冰晶状化合物



                                                                         Status of natural gas hydrate resources in the world世界天然气 水合物资源现状

Natural gas hydrate is a new type of backup energy discovered in the last century. It is an ideal substitute resource for oil and natural gas in the 21st century. It is currently the largest undeveloped energy reservoir on earth. In the late 1990s, the estimated value of natural gas hydrate resources varied greatly, ranging from 1×1015m3 to 21×1015m3 at standard temperature and pressure. Much larger than the total estimate for conventional natural gas resources (57 x 1015m3). The estimated value of natural gas hydrate resources is geological storage and reclamation value. The production of natural gas hydrates will be higher than that of conventional natural gas resources

天然气水合物是上世纪发现的一种 新型后备能源,为21世纪石油天然气的理想替代资源,是目前地球上尚未开发的最大能源库。上世纪九十年代晚期天然气水合物资源估算值的差别大,标准温度压力下为1×1015m3 ~21×1015m3.。比常规天然气资源的总估算值(57 x 1015m3)大得 多。天然气水合物资源估算值为地质储垦值。天然气水合物的生产量会高于常规天然气资源的产量。

At present, scientists from all over the world have a relatively consistent assessment of the global natural gas hydrate resources as 2×1018, which is 136 times the remaining natural gas reserves (156×1014m3).

目前各国科学家对全球天然气水合物 资源量较为一致的评价为2x1018,是剩 余天然气储量(156 X 1014m3)136倍。

The thickness of the gas hydrate deposit itself is several hundred meters, and the world's natural gas hydrate resources are very considerable. However, apart from small field tests, the only one that has been exploited at present is the Mesoyaha gas hydrate gas field in Russia. Yield is uncertain.

天然气水合物矿藏自身的厚度有几百 米,全世界天然气水合物资源非常可观, 但是,除了小型现场试验之外,目前惟一实现开采的是俄罗斯的麦索亚哈天然气水合物气田,全球未来的产量尚不确定。

                                                                        Gas Hydrate Exploration Methods天然气水合物勘探方法

Gas hydrate exploration mainly adopts geophysical and geochemical methods. Among them, the geophysical exploration methods mainly include seismic exploration technology, logging technology, borehole sampling technology, heat flow measurement technology, marine electromagnetic detection technology, etc. Geochemical methods mainly include organic chemical methods, fluid geochemical methods, stable isotope chemical methods, acid hydrolysis of hydrocarbons, and marine sediment thermoluminescence methods. In addition, geological exploration methods, new generation earth observation systems and authigenic sedimentary mineralogical methods are also used in gas hydrate exploration.

天然气水合物勘探主要采用地球物理方法和地球化学方法。其中,地球物理勘探方法主要包括地震勘探技术、测井技术、钻孔取样技术、热流测量技术、海洋电磁法探测技术等。地球化学方法主要包括有机化学方法、流体地球化学方法、稳定同位素化学方法、酸解烃方法、海洋沉积物热释光方法等。另外,地质勘探方法、新一代地球观测系统和自生沉积矿物 学法也是天然气水合物勘探采用的方法。

Geophysical Methods Geophysical methods include seismic methods and logging methods. The ground-sen method is the most widely used method for exploration and investigation of natural gas hydrates, and its essence is to discover the BSR (seabed simulated reflector). Most of the gas hydrates on the seafloor are discovered through seafloor seismic data. Studies have shown that large-area distribution of gas hydrates can be determined by applying acoustic methods.

地球物理方法地球物理方法包括地震方法和测井方法。地森方法是应用最为广泛的天然气水合物勘探调查研究方法, 其实质是发现BSR(海底模拟反射层)。海底的天然气水合物大多是通过海底地震资料发现的。研究表明,应用声学方法可确定大面积分布的天然气水合物。

Well logging technology is another effective method after seismic reflection method in natural gas hydrate exploration. As a traditional exploration method, well logging has also been used in gas hydrate exploration. Logging technology is mainly used to: determine the depth distribution of gas hydrate and gas hydrate-bearing sediments; estimate porosity and methane saturation; use wellbore information to correct seismic and other geophysical data. At the same time, logging data is also an effective means to study the depositional environment and evolution of gas hydrate main strata near well points. Due to the particularity of gas hydrate reservoirs, the application of logging methods is obviously experimental.

测井技术是天然气水合物勘探中除地震反射法之后又一有效手段。作为一种传统的勘探方法,测井在天然气水合物勘探 中也得到了成用。測井技术主要用于:确定天然气水合物、含天然气水合物沉积物在深度上的分布:估算孔隙度与甲烷饱和度;利用井孔信息对地震与其他地球物理资料作校正。同时,测井资料也是研究井点附近天然气水合物主地层沉积环境及演化的有效手段。由于天然气水合物储层的特殊性,测井方法的应用存存者明显的试验性。

Geochemical methods Geochemical methods are a new exploration method developed in the mid-1980s. Natural gas geochemical anomalies are often formed in shallow seabed sediments because gas hydrates are easily decomposed with changes in temperature and pressure. These anomalies can not only indicate the possible location of natural gas hydrates, but also judge the origin of natural gas by using the ratio of silicon components and carbon isotope composition. Therefore, geochemistry has become an effective method to identify the occurrence of submarine gas hydrates. Geochemical methods have become an important means of natural gas hydrate research and an important supplement to the research of geophysical methods.

    地球化学方法地球化学方法是上 世紀80年代中期开发出的一种勘探新方法。由于天然气水合物极易随温度压力的变化而分解海底浅部沉积物中常常形成天然气地球化学异常。这些异常不仅可指示天然气水合物可能存在的位置,而且可利用其娃类组分比值及碳同位素成分判断其天然气的成因。因而地球化学成为识别海底天然气水合物赋存的有效方法。地球化学方法已成为天然气水合物研究的重要手段,是对地球物理方法研究的重要补充。

The phenotypic minerals that indicate the existence of natural gas hydrates by the phenotype mineral method are usually carbonates, sulfates and sulfides with specific compositions and forms, which are associated with ore-forming fluids in the process of deposition, diagenesis and epigenesis. A series of typotype minerals formed by the interaction of seawater, pore water and sediments. After the gas hydrate is decomposed, carbonate will precipitate, and this carbonate has a special isotopic geochemical feature, according to which the existence of gas hydrate can be judged.


Since the 1990s, authigenic carbonate minerals have been successively discovered in the seabed sediments of the continental margin of western India outside the Oregon coast in western North America and the United Nations submarine plateau in the Mediterranean Sea, which has led to people's understanding of the natural gas hydrate. The distribution is linked to authigenic carbonate mineral formation and the authigenic mineral production as an indicator of gas hydrate formation. These authigenic minerals are produced in the form of carbonate uplifts, nodules, and chimneys, accompanied by marine mussels, mussels, tubular worms, fungus mats, and methane bubbles, all of which are vertically oriented by methane-rich fluids. Due to discharge, they are more typical in mud diapir and mud volcano development areas.

自生沉积矿物学法上世纪90年代以来,自生碳酸盐矿物在北美西部俄勒冈滨外印度西部大陆边缘和地中海的 United Nations海底高原等区域海底沉积物中相继发现,从而使人们将天然气水合物的分布与自生碳酸盐矿物形成联系起来并将该自生矿物产出作为天然气水合物的形成标志。这些自生矿物呈碳酸盐的岩隆、结核和烟囱等形式产出,与之相伴的海洋贻贝类、蚌类、管状蠕虫类、菌席和甲烷气泡等,这些都是富甲烷流体垂直向排出所致,它们在泥底辟和泥火山发育区更为典型。

The natural gas hydrate of the new generation earth observation system is distributed in the offshore continental slope of the continental margin or in the permafrost of the earth's polar regions and other continental ice sheets. The working conditions are poor, and the conventional geological exploration effect is not satisfactory.


Using the new generation of earth observation information to find gas hydrate, the key is to understand its special signs such as thermal anomaly, chemical composition anomaly and special tectonic environment. Using a new generation of satellite remote sensing data can provide special information on solid gas hydrates, such as the leakage of solid gas hydrates, which can be reflected on remote sensing images.


                                                                     Natural gas hydrate development technology天然气水合物开发技术

The idea of gas hydrate development is to first consider how to decompose the gas hydrate contained in the sediments, and then recover the natural gas to the surface. Breaking the temperature and pressure conditions for the stable existence of natural gas hydrate and causing its decomposition is the main method for developing methane resources in natural gas hydrate at present. The methods proposed at this stage can be classified into four categories: heating method, depressurization method, chemical addition method, displacement method, etc.


The heating method pumps steam, hot water, hot brine or other thermal fluids from the ground into the hydrate formation, and the fire flooding method used in the production of heavy oil can also be used. . The main uncertainty of thermal mining technology is that it will cause large heat loss and low efficiency. Especially in permafrost regions, the permafrost reduces the effective heat transfer to the reservoir even with insulated pipes. (see Figure 2).

加热法   将蒸汽、热水、热盐水或其它热流体从地面泵入水合物地层,也可采用开采重油时使用的火驱法,促使温度上升达到水合物分解的方法都可称为热激发法。热开采技术的主要不定是会造成大置的热损失,效率很低。特别是在永久冻土区,即使利用绝热管道,永冻层也会降低传递给储层的有效热量。(如图2 ).


The depressurization method shifts the stable phase equilibrium curve of natural gas hydrate by reducing the pressure, thereby achieving the purpose of promoting the decomposition of hydrate. Generally, the upstream gas accumulation layer below the cloth hydrate layer "reduces" the natural gas pressure or forms a natural gas cavity (which can be artificially formed by thermal excitation or chemical reagents), which makes the hydrate in contact with the natural gas unstable and Decomposes into natural gas and water (Figure 3)

降压法  通过降低压力而使天然气水合物稳定的相平衡曲线移动从而达到促使水合物分解的目的。一般是布水合物层之下的游高气聚集层中“降低”天然气压力或形成一个天然气空腔(可由热激发或化学试剂作用人为形成),使与天然气接触的水合物变得不稳定并且分解为天然气和水(如图3) .


Addition of chemical agents Some chemical agents, such as brine, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, etc., can change the phase equilibrium conditions for hydrate formation and reduce the temperature at which hydrates are stable. When the above chemicals are pumped from the wellbore, they cause the decomposition of the gas hydrate. The chemical addition method is slower than the heating method, but it does have the advantage of reducing the initial energy input, but the disadvantage is the high cost (see Figure 4) .

添加化学剂法   某些化学剂,如盐水、甲醇、乙醇、乙二醇、丙三醇等可以改变水合物形成的相平衡条件,降低水合物稳定的温度。当将上述化学剂从井孔泵入后,就会引起天然气水合物的分解。添加化学剂法较加热法作用緩慢,但确有降低初始能源输入的优点,缺点是成本高 (如图4 ) .


Other methods Recently, some scholars proposed to use C6 to replace the mining, and use the pressure to make the phase equilibrium pressure lower, and it is easier to form hydrates. At the same time, it can be used to treat CO22 emitted by industry (Figure 5).

其他方法   近期有学者提出用C6置换开采,用压力将相平衡压力较低,更容易形成水合物的CO.通入天然气水合物储展,通过形成二氧化碳水合物放出的热量来分解天然气水合物,同时可以用来处理工业排放的CO22(如图5 )。


Comprehensive method It is uneconomical to use a certain method to exploit natural gas hydrate, and the effective exploitation of hydrate can only be achieved by combining the concerns of different methods. Combination of depressurization method and thermal extraction technology, namely decomposing natural gas hydrate by thermal excitation method firstly, and then extracting free gas by depressurization method (Fig. 6) .

综合方法   采用某一种方法来开采天然气水合物是不经济的,只有结合不同方法的点才能达到对水合物的有效开釆。将降压法和热开采技术结合使用,即先用热激发法分解天然气水合物,后用降压法提取游离气体(如图6 ) .


According to the results of experimental mining and technological progress in recent years, it is technically feasible for developed countries to realize industrial-scale exploitation of natural gas hydrate in 2015-20, but commercial exploitation is worth discussing. Through the research on the status of exploration and development of natural gas hydrate resources in the world, the optimal utilization of natural gas hydrate resources can be realized and the effect of exploration and development can be improved. It will provide theoretical and practical basis for the high-level and high-efficiency development of global natural gas hydrate resources. P.E



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Keywords关键词:CCSC Technology, Combustible ice; exploration and development; natural gas hydrate; CO2; natural gas hydrate exploration method; natural gas hydrate development technology.


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