ccsc-clients-from-Malaysia grease-injection-for-plug-valve MT-test-for-body UT-test-for-body ccsc-wellhead-production-base ccsc-visual-check-before-packing hardness-test-bvi-tpi ccsc-packing-cases ccsc-designer choke manifold platform offshore drilling equipments ccsc-wellhead-production-base-2 plug-valve-manifold-in-north-america offshore-oil-gas-equipment-solutions 3-head-burner-boom CCSC FRAC HEAD sand filter sand catcher hammer union CCSC OFFSHORE WELL TEST plug valve pup joint flowline pipe CCSC FRAC TREE surface safety valve frac-tree-in-north-america flow-line-pipe-in-north-america drilling choke manifold china-rcd-rotating-control-device hydraulic-test ccsc-clients-from-thailand shale gas frac valve subsea-wellhead-connector ccsc-well-testing-multiphase-flow-meter well testing surface safety valve ccsc-frac-valves clark-rotating-control-device

2008 Top Ten Foreign Petroleum Technology Highlights

01Deepwater subsalt oil and gas geological exploration

Important progress has been made in the application of theory and technology



With the new innovation and application of deepwater pre-salt oil and gas geological exploration theory and technology, breakthroughs have been made in the world's pre-salt oil and gas exploration. A series of major oil and gas discoveries have been made in the sea area, the Gulf of Mexico and other regions, which have attracted great attention from the industry. As a very important field of oil and gas resource reserves, the subsalt strata shows good exploration prospects and is becoming a new hot spot in the world's oil and gas exploration.

随着深水盐下油气地质勘探理论技术的不新创新与应用,世界盐下油气勘探取得突破性进展, 分别在巴西海域、 呈西哥湾等地区都发现盐下油气藏,特别是近期在巴西海域、墨西哥湾等地区都发现盐下相继获得一系列重大油气发现, 引起业界的度关注。 盐下层系作为油气资源储藏非常要的—个领域,显示出良好的勘探前景,正在成为世界油气勘探的新热点。

The rapid development of deep-water subsalt oil and gas geological exploration aids theory and technology has deepened the understanding of pre-salt oil and gas accumulation conditions and oil and gas distribution laws, improved deep-water sub-salt oil and gas exploration results, and laid a solid foundation for exploration breakthroughs. In recent years, a number of geological exploration research results and understandings have been obtained, which are mainly reflected in: First, the identification, evaluation and prediction technology of pre-salt reservoirs has been developed, and it is proposed that the pre-salt oil and gas are mainly carbonate rock and reef reservoirs, which is clearly The trap types are dominated by reef formations and anticlines, which lays a solid foundation for accurately predicting oil and gas distribution and deploying exploration strategies. Second, the use of advanced subsalt seismic imaging and other technologies is helpful to accurately predict lithofacies patterns. Based on the heterogeneity of the reservoir and the determination of the shape, scale and burial depth of the trap, a set of supporting technologies for pre-salt carbonate reservoir prediction has been formed through research. The third is the development of seismic exploration technology and the popularization of 3D simulation technology. The application has greatly promoted the process of salt structure research. The development process and spatial changes of salt structures can be restored through simulation, which has an essential guiding role in the exploration and geological interpretation of salt structures. Fourth, by analyzing the evolution process of salt structures, the Learned the creep law of salt-gypsum formation, established a creep pressure prediction method, and improved the accuracy of evaluating pre-salt oil and gas accumulation conditions.

深水盐下油气地质助探理论技术的快速发展,深化了对盐下油气成藏条件和油气分布规律的认识, 善了深水盐下油气勘探效果, 为取得勘探突破莫定了基础 近几年获得多项地质勘探研究成果和认识,主要体现在;一是发展了盐下储层识别,评价和预测技术,提出盐下油气以碳酸盐岩和生物礁储层为主, 明确了 圈闭类型以生物礁建造和背斜构造为主, 为准确地预测油气分布和部署勘探战略莫定了基础,二是采用先进的盐下地震成像等技术,有助于准确预测岩相模式与储层的非均质性以及确定圈闭的形态 规模与埋深, 通过研究形成一套盐下碳酸盐岩储层预测配套技术:三是地震勘探技术的发展及三维模拟技术的普遍应用,极大地推动了盐构造研究的进程,通过模拟可以恢复盐构造发育过程和空间变化, 对盐构造的勘探及地质解释具有至要指导作 用;四是通过解析盐构造演化过程,进—步学握了盐膏层纽蠕变规律,建立了蠕动压力预测方法,提画了评价盐下油气成藏条件的准确性。

Under the guidance of the deep-water subsalt oil and gas geological exploration aids, a number of great discoveries have been made in the global deep-water subsalt oil and gas exploration recently. In particular, the Tupi oil and gas field discovered in Brazil was the most striking oil and gas discovery in the world in 2007. The recoverable reserves can reach 5 billion to 8 billion barrels of oil equivalent.

在深水盐下油气地质助探理论技木的指导下,近期全球深水 盐下油气勘探获得多个至大发现,特别是巴西发现的Tupi油气田 是2007年全球引人注目的油气发现, 初步估计可采储可达 50亿至80亿桶油当量。

02 Oil and gas resources in the Arctic

Breakthrough progress in evaluation



The Arctic is a region with very rich resources, very little data, extremely complex geological conditions and high environmental sensitivity. In order to better understand the oil resources in the region, the United States Geological Survey adopted unified evaluation standards and methods, and together with a number of international organizations, spent four years conducting a comprehensive, systematic, and comprehensive survey of the oil resources to be discovered in the Arctic region. Objective geological analysis and research, and publicly disclosed the evaluation results of petroleum resources in the entire Arctic region in July 2008, which marked a breakthrough in the first systematic evaluation of petroleum resources in the Arctic region, and also showed that this evaluation method is difficult for many exploration conditions. The evaluation of oil and gas resources in the new area has important reference value.

北极是一个资源非常丰富  资料十分匮乏 地质条件极其杂、 环境敏感度特别高的地区。 为了更好地了解该地区石油资源情况, 美国地质调查屁采用统—的评价标准和方法,和多家国际机构一道 4年时间对北极地区待发现石油资源进行了全而、系统、 客观的地质分析和研究,并于20087月公开披露了整个北极地区石油资源评价结果,标志着北极区首次系统油气资源评价工作取得突破性进展, 也表明这套评价方法对于很多勘探条件困难新区的油气资源评估具有重要的参考价值。

The evaluation results show that there are 90 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil to be discovered, 1670 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable natural gas to be discovered, and 44 billion barrels of technically recoverable gas in the 25 geological regions with the most oil and gas potential north of the Arctic Circle. recoverable natural gas. They account for 13%, 30% and 20% of the world's undiscovered oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids respectively, and together they account for 22% of the world's total undiscovered technically recoverable resources. Of these resources, an estimated 84% is located offshore, and most of the undiscovered oil resources are confined to the Alaska Polar Region, the Americas Basin, and the East Greenland Rift Basin. The vast Arctic continental shelf may be the largest untapped oil reserve on Earth. According to the current world demand of about 86.4 million barrels of crude oil per day, the oil reserves contained in the Arctic can meet the global supply for three years.

评价结果显示,在北极圈以北地区25具油气潜力的地质区, 共计拥有900亿待发现的技术可采石油 1670万亿立方 英尺待发现的技术可采天然气和440亿桶技术可采天然气液。 它们分别占世界待发现石油、 天然气和天然气液的13%30%20%, 合计占世界待发现技术可采资源总呈的22% 。 在这些资 源中,估计有84%位于海上, 多半待发现的石油资海仅局限在 阿拉斯加极地、 美亚盆地和东格林兰裂谷盆地。广阔的北极大陆架可能是地球上录大的尚未开发的石油储哉地。按目前全世界每天大约8640万桶原油需求量计算,北极蕴含的石油储量能够满足全球3年的供应。

03Development technology for in-situ upgrading of heavy oil

Mine field test made breakthrough progress



In-situ upgrading of heavy oil is a revolutionary change to the development method of Yiyou. For many years, the international petroleum industry has been exploring effective methods of in-situ upgrading of heavy oil, but it is limited to laboratory tests. The field test of in-situ upgrading of electric heaters was successful, and the horizontal well in Yijing combined with the combustion oil layer (THAI)/catalytic upgrading (CAPRI) well was put into production for the first time, bringing a breakthrough in the in-situ upgrading technology of heavy oil. In-situ upgrading of electric heaters is accomplished by drilling several closely spaced horizontal wells in the formation, some of which are inserted into heaters and others for production and monitoring. After a period of time, the heater slowly heats the chamber oil. As the temperature rises, the chamber oil begins to crack, the coke remains in the ground, and the light oil is produced from the production well. Using this technology, a pilot test was successfully carried out in the Pinghe oil sands mining area in the northwest of Jiazi Alberta, where 100,000 barrels of black semi-solid oil sands were upgraded into light oil with API of 30 to 49 degrees. Although the application specification is not very large, the technology has the potential to completely change the oil extraction situation. Game Changers'.

油就地改质是对宜油开发方式的革命性转变,多年来国际石油界直在探索有效的油就地改质方法, 但仅限于实验室试验。 电加热器就地改质现场试验取得成功,宜井水平井结合火烧 油层(THAI)/催化改质(CAPRI)井首次投产, 为油就地改质技术带来突破性进展。 电加热器就地改质是通过在地层钻若干距离很近的水平井,其中些插入加热器, 一些用来生产和 监洞。经过段时间,加热器慢慢将室油加热。随若温度升商, 室油开始发生裂解,焦炭留在地下,轻油从生产井采出。应用该 技术在加字大阿尔伯达西北和平河油砂矿区成功进行了先导性试 验,10万桶黑色半体状油砂改质成30度至49API的轻油。尽管应用规揆还不是很大, 但该技术有可能成为彻底改变更油开采 局而的 .游戏变革者'

THAI/CAPRI is an in-situ upgrading technology that combines the thermal cracking effect of THAI and the catalytic cracking effect of CAPRI. Among them, THAI technology is a new technology that improves the recovery factor of surface-fired oil layers by using vertical injection wells and horizontal production wells. Building on the success of the three pairs of THAI pilot wells at Alberta's Whitesands oil sands project, two concentric slotted liners were installed in the horizontal section of the production well, with an active catalyst bed placed in between. In this way, the produced oil is first subjected to thermal cracking of THAI and then to catalytic cracking of CAPRI. In laboratory tests, in addition to the upgrading effect of THAI technology, CAPRI technology successfully upgraded crude oil with an API degree of 7 degrees. In the field application in the oil field, the test well drilled in June 2008 started air injection and oil production in August, and it is in continuous production so far. The production pool has been upgraded to 11.5 degrees API through 8 degrees API.

THAI/ CAPRI是将THAI的热裂效应和CAPRI的催化裂解效应相结合的就地改质技术。其中THAI技术是项通过采用垂宜注入井和水平生产井的布井方式来提面火烧油层采收率的新技术。在阿尔伯达Whitesands油砂项目的三对THAI试验井取得成功的础上, 在生产井水平井段安装了两个同心割缝衬管,之间放巨了活性催化剂床。 这样,产出先是经过THAI的热裂解,然后又经过CAPRI催化裂解。在实验室测试中, 除了THAI技术的 改质效果外,CAPRI技术成功改质了API度为7度的原油。在油田现场应用中,20086月完钻的试验井8月开始注空气和采油, 至今正在连续生产,产出池巳经由8API改质到11.5API

04Improved water flooding in high water-cut oilfields

New technology has made important progress



Aiming at the deepening development of a large number of flooded and flooded oil in the world, it is crucial to find out the spatial distribution of the remaining oil, and to exploit the remaining oil in a targeted manner. Eight new technologies, represented by the Great Reservoir Reservoir (ERC), will become the key technologies in the next 20 years. Drilling technology that greatly touches the reservoir (ERC), smart control technology of horizontal lateral well inflow, intelligent and fully automatic development technology of oil field, passive seismic monitoring technology of downhole reservoir flow, and simulation technology of mega-scale grid , stochastic denaturation technology of injected fluid, bionic well technology, nano-level detection technology that can penetrate deep into the reservoir.

针对世界上大的巳注水和水淹后油款的深化开发,摸清剩余油的空间分布,有的放矢地开采剢余油成为关键。以极大触及 储层井(ERC)为代表的八项新技术将成为未来20年的关键技 术.极大触及储层( ERC )的钻技术、 水平分支井流入量灵巧控制技术、 智能化全自控开发技木、 井下储层流态无源地监测技术、 储层于兆级网格拟技术、注人流体随机变性技术、 仿生井技术、 可深入储层的纳米级侦测技术。

At present, ERC wells and bionic wells are being actively developed, and most of their elements have been realized, such as downhole intelligent control valves that can block specific branches, and downhole monitoring and surface control devices that can analyze fluid properties in real time. The flow control technology developed by a number of oil companies and service companies to apply hydraulic or power systems has been successful and widely used, and is moving towards the direction of intelligence. The digital oilfield technology that major oil companies are developing and promoting has realized the real-time monitoring of Ikeda, laying the foundation for the realization of fully automatic oilfields that can "automatically run". Technical service companies are commercializing non-travel microseismic technology. The core technology of the gigagrid simulator has been conquered, and the numerical simulation of 700 mega grids has been realized. Initial progress has been made in injecting fluid self-denaturation technology, and future research and development will focus on adapting it to a wide range of oilfield conditions. The oil silence nanometer has been successfully developed and passed the first feasibility test, which has solved the key indicators such as size, concentration and chemical properties that the detector must meet for "travel" in the underground.

目前正在积极研发ERC井和仿生井, 其大部分要素已经实现, 如井下智能控制阀可以封堵特定分支, 井下监测和地控制装置可以实时分析流体特性。多家石油公司和服务公司研发的应用液压或电力系统的流呈控制技术已经取得成功并广泛应用, 正在向智能化方向迈进。 各大石油公司正在若力研发和推广的数字 油田技术已经实现池田的实时监浏, 为实现能 自动运行 " 的全自控油田定了础。技术服务公司正在将无游微震技术推向商 业化应用。 已经攻克千兆网格模拟器的核心技木,并实现700兆 网格的数值模拟。注入流体自变性技木已经取得初步进展, 今后 的研发点是使其适应页广泛的油田条件。油寂纳米侦测仪巳经 研发成功并通过首次可行性试,解决了侦测仪在地下旅行 必须要满足的尺寸、 浓度、 化学性质等关键指标。

05Seismic while drilling technology is accurate and efficient

Low-cost exploration drilling plays an important role



Seismic while drilling (SWD) is a new method for real-time tracking and determination of wellbore trajectory according to depth and seismic travel. , Prevention of drilling hazards and determination of overpressure zones and other related information. With the continuous development and maturity of SWD, as a new low-cost exploration method, it is playing an increasingly important role in providing more detailed and effective supplementary information for oilfield development or reservoir description. It has achieved rapid development worldwide, especially at this stage, it can better play a precise guiding role in the development of thin pay zones by vigorously developing horizontal wells in China.

随钻地技术(SWD)是一种根据深度和地震旅行实时跟踪确定井轨迹的新方法, 主要用于钻井过程中的实时监测,及时为钻井了程师提供取心、 下套管点、 预防钻井危害及确定过压带等相关信息随若SWD的不断发展 、 成熟,作为一种新的低成本的勘探手段,在为油田开发或储层描述提供更加翔实和有效的补充信息方而发挥若越来越要的作用, 近年来在世界范围内得到较快的发展, 尤其现阶段对干国内大力发展水平井开发薄 产层能更好地发挥确导向作用。

The SWD measurement is carried out completely during the drilling process, which has almost no interference to the drilling, and its own cost is very low. If it can be used correctly, the drilling cost can be reduced and the drilling safety can be ensured. If the geophone or geophone array is placed on the surface or near the surface, it is essentially an inverse VSP (vertical seismic profile). Some people call it VSP while drilling or inverse VSP while drilling; if the geophone array is larger than the phase In adjacent wells, r is essentially a kind of inter-dimension test, which can also be called inter-steep drilling. SWD is applied in two ways. In the early days, it used downhole demand sources and surface geophones. In recent years, it used surface seismic sources and used one or more geophones downhole. The application of VSP technology while drilling has played an important role in determining the position of the drill bit, imaging while drilling, selecting the well and coring points, estimating the pore pressure near the drill bit, and early warning of drilling accidents.

SWD测邑完全是在钻进过程中进行的, 对钻井几于没有 干扰, 其本身成本很低,如能正确使用可大大陆低钻井成本, 并能保证钻井安全。 如果把检波器或检波器排列于地表或近 地表, 则其实质是一种逆VSP (垂宜地震剖面)有人称之为 随钻VSP或随钻逆VSP; 如果把检波器排列巨于相邻的井中r 则其实质是种并间地需测呈, 也可称之为陡钻井间地霖。 SWD通过两种方式应用 早期是利用井下需源和地检波器, 近年来利用地面震源,在井下使用 个或多个检波器。应用随 钻VSP技术已经在确定钻头位竺 、 随钻成像 、 选取因井和取心点、 钻头附近孔隙压力以及钻井事故等诸多方而发挥重要作用。

The new generation of SWD tools successfully solves the coupling problem with multi-wave, multi-axis sensors, ruggedized geophones, seismic accelerators, and underwater geophones, combined with new high-precision timing and surface systems. Halliburton has studied the design performance of the new tool and conducted field trials of seismic data acquisition using multiple sensors and different types of sensors in various formations and directional wells, combining seismic data acquisition while drilling with wireline VSP measurements. The comparison shows that the new generation of SWD tools can provide drilling engineers with accurate and effective data support.


06 Coiled tubing drilling technology

Further expand the application field



Coiled tubing drilling technology plays an increasingly important role in oil and gas exploration and development. By the end of 2007, more than 10,000 coiled tubing wells have been drilled worldwide, and it is expected that the number of new coiled tubing wells will reach about 1,000 in the future. With the combination of coiled tubing drilling technology and underbalanced drilling, managed pressure drilling, rotary steering and other technologies, the application field of coiled tubing drilling technology has been greatly expanded.


Coiled Tubing Underbalanced Drilling (CT-UBD) is an underbalanced drilling operation with coiled tubing as the string, which not only solves the problems of low ROP and drilling fluid leakage during overbalanced operations, but also reduces reservoir damage and increases oil well production by 40%. %. Coiled Tubing Rotary Steering Drilling (CT-RSS) can break the pipe diameter limitation caused by the steering of a specific elbow joint of the mud motor, solve the problem of directional control when the well depth exceeds 1500 meters, and obtain good results in directional and vertical deep well drilling. Coiled tubing controlled pressure drilling (CT-MPD) can reduce the frequent occurrence of differential pressure sticking accidents in the coiled tubing drilling process. In the application in the North Sea oilfield, it reduces the cost, simplifies the operation, and significantly improves the production efficiency of the oil well. Microhole Drilling is a key research and development project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, aiming to promote the rapid development of shallow oil and gas resources in the United States. At present, a series of progress has been made in the research and development of micro-hole technology, including micro-hole drilling rigs, downhole instruments, intelligent steering motors, logging while drilling systems, micro-hole coiled tubing tractors, radar steering and radio data transmission systems, etc. In order to solve the problem of cobalt wells caused by the inability to rotate conventional coiled tubing, a coiled tubing drilling device that can be rotated from the surface has been developed. The device can drive the coiled tubing at a speed of 20 rpm, saving 40% of drilling time and 66.6% of the number of coiling, lay-off and straightening operations, thus extending the fatigue life of the coiled tubing by 300%.

连续管欠平衡钻井(CT-UBD)是以连续管作为管柱的欠平衡钻井作业,不仅解决了过平衡作业钻速低和钻井液漏失等问题,同时降低了储层伤害,油井产量提高40%。连续管旋转导向钻井(CT-RSS)能够打破泥浆马达一特定弯接头导向造成的管径限制,解决了井深超过1500米时的定向控制问题,在定向和垂直深井钻井中获得良好的效果。连续管控制压力钻井(CTMPD)可以减少频发于连续管钻井过程中的压差卡钻事故,在北海油田的应用中,降低了成本,简化了操作,明显改善了油井的生产效率。微井眼钻井技术(Microhole Drilling)是美国能源部资助的重点研发项目,目的是推动美国浅层油气资源的快速开发。目前微井眼技术研发已经取得一系列进展,包括微井眼钻机、井下仪器、智能导向马达、随钻测井系统、微井眼连续管牵引车、雷达导向与无线电数据传输系统等。为了解决常规连续管不能转动所带来的钴井问题,已经研制成功一种可以从地面旋转的连续管钻井装置。该装置可以驱动连续管以20/分的速度,节省40%的钻井时间,减少66.6%的盘管、放管和矫直作业次数,从而使连续管的疲劳寿命延长300%。


The rapid development of coiled tubing drilling technology has been reflected in the large-scale application of the oil and gas drilling industry in developed countries. It is believed that these technological advances will play a good reference and leading role in the development of coiled tubing drilling equipment and technology in my country.


07 Measurement of Transverse Relaxation Time

Magnetic resonance logging while drilling tool developed successfully



NMR logging while drilling is an advanced logging technology that can measure various downhole formation parameters. The main challenge in developing this tool is that the vibration of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) can seriously affect the measurement, making it impossible to measure directly during drilling.Transverse relaxation time (D2), which is part of the long-term influence on the industry's acceptance of NMR logging while drilling.随钻核磁共振测井是一种能够测量井下多种地层参数的先进测井技术。开发这种仪器面临的主要难题是,井底钻具组合(BHA)的振动会严重影响测量,造成钻井期间无法直接测出横向弛豫时间(丁2),这是长期以来影响业界接受随钻核磁共振测井技术的部分原因。

In order to reduce vibration and collect T2 data, Baker Hughes NTEQ developed a successful LWD magnetic resonance instrument, MagTrak LWD, in the design of 3 technical measures: First, make the gradient of the static field formed in the detection range close to zero; second , developed a special electronic circuit to keep the echo spacing at 06 ms: Finally, a special centralizer was designed to eliminate the rotation caused by friction between the BHA and the borehole.

为了降低震动和采集T2数据,贝克休斯NTEQ公司开发成功的LWD磁共振仪器一MagTrak LWD在设计中采取3种技术措施:第一,使形成的静态场在探测范围内梯度接近于零第二,开发了特殊的电子线路,保持回波间距为06毫秒:最后,设计了特殊扶正器以消除BHA与井眼摩擦造成的旋转。

MagTrak LWD: is the first instrument to successfully measure T2 during drilling and provide real-time T2 distribution information. MagTrak LWD provides comprehensive magnetic resonance measurements including formation porosity, bound fluid volume, free fluid volume, permeability, hydrocarbon detection, and T1 (longitudinal relaxation time) and T2 spectral distributions. Real-time applications include identifying potential wellbore problems through shale classification, improving perforation operations, identifying missed low-resistance reservoirs, obtaining high-quality data in high-risk wells, and optimizing well locations, drilling safely, and improving ultimate recovery. Provide data support.

MagTrak LWD:是第一个在钻井过程中成功测量T2的仪器,并能实时提供T2分布信息。MagTrak LWD可以提供综合的磁共振测量结果,包括地层孔隙度、束缚流体体积、自由流体体积、渗透率、油气检测以及T1(纵向弛豫时间)T2谱分布等。实时应用包括,通过页岩分类识别潜在的井眼问题、改善射孔作业、识别遗漏的低阻油气层、在高风险井中获得高质量数据,为优化井位、安全钻井、提高最终采收率提供数据支持。

At present, the instrument has been put into application in about 60 wells offshore and onshore in the North Sea, West Africa, Europe, etc.


08 "Platelet" technology solves oil and gas fields

Difficulties in locating and repairing leakage of gathering and transportation pipelines



A new technique for repairing pipes called "platelets" has been developed and successfully used in the UK. This technology can replace the traditional method of locating and repairing pipeline leakage, and can form a complete set of solutions to pipeline leakage problems, which can play an important role in the safe operation of pipelines.


The new technology, developed by British company Brinker Technologies, is inspired by human platelets. When the blood vessels of the human body are ruptured, the platelets in the blood will coagulate and block the wound at the rupture of the blood vessels. The technology can also be used for pipeline leak location. In application, only need to add a radioactive source to the particles, and the radiation detector is installed on the remote control diving device or the pig to accurately find the leak location and exclude other suspicious points. Platelets technology can be used in any fluid pipeline, as long as there is positive pressure between the fluid and the pipe wall, from small diameter subsea pipelines operating at pressures up to 500 bar to large diameter onshore pipelines that are only slightly above atmospheric pressure, including oil pipelines , natural gas pipelines, coiled tubing and downhole repairs.


Platelets technology was first used in the water injection pipeline of BP's Foinaven oilfield in the UK, and was subsequently used in Apache's overdue crude oil gathering pipeline in Fotes oilfield, as an emergency plan to solve the problem of old pipeline leakage. The four pipelines rehabilitated at the Forties field are 12 inches in diameter and 20 inches in diameter and between 3,300 meters and 7,600 meters in length. Companies such as Shell and Norwegian Hydro have also successively applied Platelets: technology, which has played an important role in the safe operation of their pipelines.


09 Residual oil suspended bed hydrogenation

Cracking Industrial Test Successfully



Eni's Suspended Bed Technology (EST) is a major technological innovation in the conversion of residual oil and the upgrading of unconventional crude oil, which enables the conversion of the heaviest components of crude oil into useful products, the efficient use of oil and the Environmental benefits have a significant impact.EST adopts nano-scale hydrogenation catalyst and innovative catalyst separation process, which can completely convert raw oil into useful products, or upgrade it into synthetic crude oil with low specific gravity, without producing residues. The heart of the technology is the suspended bed reactor. Heavy feedstock oils are converted into lighter products in the presence of thousands of Ppm nanoscale aluminum-based catalysts. The conversion of feedstock oil begins with a thermal reaction, and the carbon-carbon bond is broken to generate free radicals. Free radicals react by H-adsorption.It should be quenched suddenly to prevent free radical recombination and further coke formation. Due to the use of unsupported slurry catalysts, there are no metals present in fixed and ebullated bed reactors. and clogging problems due to coke deposition on porous supports. The reaction product flows out of the reactor and the upgraded oil enters the separation system, the recovered gas, naphtha, middle distillate oil and vacuum gas oil, and the unconverted feedstock oil and dispersed catalyst are recycled back to the reactor.




The technology has been successfully tested in laboratory and medium-sized units, and a 60,000-ton/year industrial demonstration unit is being built at the Taranto refinery. The operation of the unit shows that EST has good raw material flexibility, and can convert all kinds of residual oil, extra-heavy crude oil and bitumen into light, medium and heavy distillate oil and seldom discharge tail oil; at the same time, it also has strong desulfurization and desulfurization Metal and decarburization properties and proper denitrification properties.


Compared with the existing conversion technology, EST has good economics, and Eni decided to build the first 1 million tons/year industrial production unit at the Sannazzaro refinery, which is scheduled to start production in the second quarter of 2012.


10 Second-generation biodiesel production technology

The development was successful, and the first unit was completed and put into production



Neste Petroleum Corporation of Finland adopted its second-generation biodiesel production technology NExBTL to build a 170,000-ton/year unit at its Porvoo refinery in Finland, becoming the world's first refinery-level production of second-generation biodiesel device.


The NExBTL process has a wide range of applications and can process both vegetable oil and animal fat. Currently, the main raw materials used are rapeseed oil, palm oil and animal fat. NExBTL was included in the 2008 Environmental Europe Commodities Award product catalogue. NExBTL biodiesel is the world's first industrially produced second-generation biodiesel suitable for use in all diesel engines with at least 10% renewable diesel. It can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% to 60% and significantly reduce suspended particulate matter emissions compared to fossil diesel.


In May 2008, the green diesel plant using this process was completed and put into operation at the Porvoo refinery of Neste Petroleum Corporation. The diesel produced is used in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland, and is planned to be rolled out across the country in stages. The renewable diesel content in this diesel is higher than the current EU regulation of 2% and meets the 2020 EU regulations. Neste Petroleum's second biodiesel plant is also at the Porvoo refinery and is expected to start production in 2009. The third unit using this process is under construction in Singapore with a production capacity of 800,000 tons/year. It is scheduled to be put into operation from 2010 to 2011 and will be the world's largest biodiesel unit so far. PE




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Keywords关键词:CCSC technology, important progress has been made in the application of deep-water pre-salt oil and gas geological exploration theory and technology; breakthrough progress has been made in the evaluation of oil and gas resources in the Arctic; Significant progress has been made in technology; seismic while drilling technology plays an important role in accurate, efficient, and low-cost exploration drilling; coiled tubing drilling technology has further expanded its application field; magnetic r

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