2008 PetroChina Upstream Scientific and Technological Progress
01 Origin of natural gas and large gas fields in China
Remarkable achievements in the research on the formation mechanism
PetroChina has made significant progress in research on the origin of natural gas and the formation mechanism of large gas fields in China. This research systematically analyzed the origin of natural gas, and proposed 36 identification indicators. Among them, in 2008, 4 new identification indicators were proposed, including light hydrocarbon isotopes to identify coal-derived gas and oil-based gas, which improved and developed the identification theory of natural gas, making our country more effective. The natural gas identification theory is at the international frontier level, and has important theoretical significance for guiding the identification of natural gas origin and gas source comparison.
The research on the main controlling factors for the formation of large gas fields has developed from qualitative to quantitative, which is of great significance to guide my country to improve the discovery rate of large gas fields. Among the 11 large gas fields above 1000×108 cubic meters discovered in my country, 7 of them have been correctly predicted 4 to 14 years in advance. Research on the formation mechanism of large gas fields, dissect the formation mechanism of various typical large gas fields such as overpressure and related low porosity and permeability sandstone, paleokarst, etc., especially the large inorganic alkanes.
The research on the gas field is the first in the world, which has promoted the natural gas genesis theory from dualism to pluralism, which has important theoretical guiding significance. The study of overpressure and its related gas fields reveals the oil and gas generation mechanism in overpressure environment and the accumulation mechanism of overpressure gas fields, and provides a theoretical basis for finding overpressure and related gas reservoirs.
The important progress made in the research on the genesis of natural gas and the formation mechanism of large gas fields in China has effectively guided the exploration practice of natural gas in my country and provided a scientific basis for the huge growth of natural gas reserves. The research results in the identification of the origin of natural gas, the theory of the origin of inorganic alkane gas, the main controlling factors of large gas fields and the formation mechanism of high-pressure natural gas reservoirs have generally reached the international leading level.
02Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in Qaidam Basin
Important progress has been made in key technology research
The key technology research on oil and gas exploration and development in the Qaidam Basin has made important progress in theoretical research, technology development and integrated application through special and concentrated research, and has achieved remarkable results.
Two important progresses have been made in theoretical and technical research. The first is to form three new basic research understandings, including the gradual clear understanding of the lithologic oil and gas interception and enrichment law in the oil-rich sag in the western Qaidam Basin, the establishment of a unified third-order sequence stratigraphic framework in the western Qaidam area, and the further clarification of the key areas for recent exploration. Zone: Deepen the dynamic accumulation model of biogas, expand the fields of deep biogas and lithologic gas reservoirs, etc.: Rebuild the three-dimensional geological model of some oilfields in the Yuejin oil area, which provides a basis for the adjustment of the development plan. The second is to initially develop and integrate 3 sets of supporting technologies, the supporting technology for continuous processing and interpretation of large-area 3D seismic data in western Qaidam, the supporting technology for gas-bearing detection in the Sanhu area, and the logging interpretation and comprehensive evaluation technology for low-permeability reservoirs in western Qaidam. The technology makes the sand body drilling coincidence rate of lithological targets reach 84%, and the interpretation coincidence rate of complex reservoirs reaches 83.7%.
These research advances have made the development of hoe detection remarkable. First, complete high-quality reserves have been established in the Kunbei fault terrace belt in the oil-rich sag in the western Qaidam Basin. The southwestern part of Qaidam has formed a reserve scale of 100 million tons, and the northwestern part of Qaidam is expected to form a new replacement area. Second, new gas-bearing strata and new types of gas reservoirs were discovered in the Sanhu area. Important signs of natural gas exploration in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin were discovered, and the natural gas resource base was further consolidated. Thirdly, the pilot tests such as secondary development to enhance oil recovery and drainage and gas recovery have achieved initial results.
03 Development of gas fields containing C02 and C02
Significant progress has been made in oil displacement technology
Under the dual pressure of resources and environment, CO2 (carbon dioxide) enhanced oil recovery technology has become a hot spot in the research and development and application of the international petroleum industry. After nearly two years of tackling key problems, PetroChina has made important breakthroughs in the basic theoretical research, process technology R&D integration and field pilot tests of CO-containing, gas field development and CO flooding technology. Effective utilization and storage laid the foundation.
Five new understandings were formed, which provided the basis for engineering design: (1) Constructed the theoretical framework of C0, formation and enrichment in the Songliao Basin; (2) clarified the characteristics and seepage laws of volcanic rock reservoirs; The phase characteristics and displacement mechanism of the crude oil system have been clearly understood: (4) The CO corrosion and protection mechanism are clarified; (5) The understanding of the basic problems in the gathering and transportation of natural gas containing CO has been deepened.
2 sets of supporting technologies were developed and integrated, and the mine field test plan was prepared: (1) The safe development technology of natural gas containing CO2, including CO-containing, natural gas reservoir engineering, safe drilling and completion, gas production technology, gathering and transportation and processing technologies; ( 2) C0 control enhanced oil recovery technology, including CO, flooding reservoir engineering optimization design, injection-production technology, monitoring, expanding swept volume, surface engineering and other technologies.
Established 2 sets of 40 technical standards and 2 HSE systems, which provided a basis for ensuring the safe and standardized implementation of field tests.
The trial production of natural gas containing CO2 and CO in Jilin Oilfield, and the field test of oil displacement is progressing smoothly. It is expected that C0, Yu can improve the oil recovery by more than 13% than water flooding.
High-efficiency development technology for ultra-low permeability oilfields is important
Breakthrough supports the rapid production increase of Changqing Oilfield
Ultra-low permeability oilfields generally have the characteristics of thin oil layer, deep burial, poor reservoir physical properties, and strong pressure sensitivity, which are very difficult to develop. After recent years of research and development, Changqing Oilfield has innovated and integrated 17 supporting technologies for the development of ultra-low permeability oilfields, successfully realizing the efficient development of ultra-low permeability oilfields such as Jiyuan, and providing technical support for the rapid production increase of Changqing Oilfield. The important technologies formed include: strengthening the comprehensive evaluation in the early stage, realizing the rapid conversion of reserves, finely formulating the overall development plan, and minimizing the development risk: strengthening the reservoir research technology based on the fine description of the reservoir, and studying the comprehensive classification of the reservoir and the rapid evaluation method. According to the characteristics of different layers of reservoirs, different well patterns such as triangle, square and diamond are used: two sets of well patterns are used in the overlapping area of multiple oil layers. In terms of stimulation, a series of supporting technologies such as low-damage fracturing fluid technology and high-strength proppant optimization have been formed to improve the stimulation effect: the group-type well group development technology, dual-process station construction technology, cluster-type well group development technology adapted to the landform characteristics of loess hilly areas such as Jiyuan Well group single-pipe gathering and transportation technology and other surface supporting technology.
05Remote sensing supporting technology for complex surface seismic engineering
The application effect is remarkable in the western region
PetroChina has used remote sensing technology to develop complete remote sensing supporting technologies for complex surface seismic engineering and form special software with independent intellectual property rights. The construction of restricted areas, the improvement of the data quality of complex surface seismic exploration areas, the improvement of construction efficiency, the reduction of hoeing costs, and the assessment of safety risks are very important. According to incomplete statistics, only three oilfields in Tarim, Xinjiang and Qinghai saved 212 million yuan in exploration investment.
The five main innovations achieved by this technology include: (1) Automatic selection technology of survey lines based on remote sensing information—Realizing the transformation of seismic acquisition and deployment design in complex exploration areas from manual qualitative to automatic quantitative, making survey line deployment more scientific and efficient ; (2) Automatic optimization design technology of excitation point position based on remote sensing information—Using remote sensing thematic information to evaluate excitation conditions to realize automatic optimization of optimal excitation conditions in complex surface areas, which can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of single shot data: (3) Receiving Combination Evaluation and Combination Center Point Position Automatic Adjustment Technology—Using remote sensing thematic information to evaluate the receiving conditions and deployment capabilities of the receiving combination to realize the pre-evaluation of the receiving conditions and the automatic design of the receiving position: (4) Preliminarily form a method for optimizing the deployment of near-surface survey control points and the use of multi-spectral remote sensing information to assist the near-surface low velocity zone prediction method: (5) Developed the "Easy Selection" seismic engineering surface information support and auxiliary design software (V1.0) with independent intellectual property rights, and realized the tangible technical achievements.
The successful research and development of this technology marks the first time in the world that China Shichi has combined remote sensing technology with seismic technology to realize automatic optimization of data acquisition, line selection, and point selection. The technology level is in a leading position in the world.
06Integration of multiple drilling technologies to help PetroChina
The annual drilling scale of horizontal wells exceeded 1,000
PetroChina has accelerated the improvement of horizontal well drilling technology, achieved breakthroughs in the integration of multiple technologies such as lateral wells, extended reach wells, underbalanced wells and geosteering, and achieved remarkable results in promoting the application scale and scope of horizontal wells.
The integration of multiple technologies in horizontal wells is mainly manifested in four aspects. (1) The integrated application of underbalanced technology and horizontal drilling technology has been successfully realized, which has greatly increased the production of a single well, and the average production has been increased by more than 4.8 times. An ammonia gas underbalanced horizontal well in the Southwest Oil and Gas Field, with a reservoir drilling rate of 90%, directly obtained 56,300 cubic meters of gas, and the output was 4 to 6 times that of the adjacent vertical well before the reservoir reconstruction. (2) Geosteering technology provides a reliable technical guarantee for the development of thin-layer, bottom-water and complex oil reservoirs. In 2008, a total of 348 wells were used, and the average oil layer drilling rate was 87.4%. The CGDS-1 near-bit geosteering drilling system with independent intellectual property rights has successively completed 3 horizontal wells in Liaohe Oilfield, with a cumulative footage of 1,047 meters. The near-bit measurement advantage is significantly higher than that of similar imported products. (3) A number of breakthroughs have been made in the application of multilateral horizontal well technology. Liaohe Oilfield applied branch drilling technologies such as suspended sidetracking, friction reduction and drag reduction, and completed a record-breaking 20 branch horizontal wells. The footage of the horizontal section of the oil layer was 4333.19 meters, and the initial daily oil production after acidification was 51 tons; completed the drilling of the first buried hill formation in China. The multi-layer branched well in the window has a length of 4369.92 meters in the reservoir, with a daily oil production of 53.4 tons, which is 6 to 10 times that of the adjacent wells in the same block. (4) The drilling technology for extended-reach horizontal wells has been further developed. Dagang Oilfield completed 7 extended-reach horizontal wells with a water-to-vertical ratio of over 2 by applying rotary geosteering technology and floating casing technology. Among them, the 8Nm-H3 well in Zhuanghai reached a water-to-vertical ratio of 3.92, creating a new CNPC extended-reach well water-to-vertical ratio. record.
In 2008, PetroChina achieved a historic breakthrough in horizontal well drilling and completed 1,005 horizontal wells, which provided an important guarantee for the company to increase oil and gas production and reduce development costs.
07 Imaging logging, digital core, processing and interpretation
Breakthrough progress in integrated technology research
By tackling key technologies such as logging data acquisition technology, petrophysical technology, processing and interpretation technology, and applying information technologies such as satellite, Internet, and ERP, PetroChina has formed logging with rapid imaging logging, rapid and accurate interpretation, and timely and effective management. network. At present, this technology has successfully completed the logging pattern test in Changqing Oilfield, achieving a breakthrough in the integration of imaging logging, digital core, processing and interpretation.
The development of a complete set of logging equipment has greatly improved the logging speed and imaging quality: the integrated combined logging system can go down well to obtain the logging data required for the whole formation evaluation at one time, and the operation time efficiency has been improved by more than 30%: the research and development of the imaging logging instrument has achieved Significant progress has been made, realizing 430,000 bits/s high-speed cable teletransmission technology, and small-scale production of four instruments including array induction, array acoustic wave, micro-resistivity scanning imaging, and ultrasonic imaging. The array induction imager has been put into application in Changqing and other oilfields, and more than 180 wells have been logged.
Digital core technology provides a guarantee for fast and accurate interpretation: through repeated test research on more than 300 cores in Changqing, Tuha and Qinghai, a digital method to reproduce rock physical properties has been developed, which greatly shortens the time required to fully describe the core. time. LEAD2.0 software realizes the integrated application of conventional logging and imaging logging in open-hole wells, production logging in cased wells and engineering logging, processing and interpreting more than 12,000 well times. A logging interpretation knowledge database is preliminarily formed, and functions such as query of offset well data, interpretation of model parameters and interpretation standards, call of charts, submission of interpretation results, and expert remote support are realized during the interpretation process.
08The key technology of the second line of the West-East Gas Pipeline is significant
Breakthroughs and strong support for the construction of the West Second Line Project
The Second West-East Gas Pipeline is famous for its high strength, high pressure and large diameter, which is unprecedented in the history of world pipeline construction. PetroChina has carried out targeted research, strongly supported the construction of the second West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and improved the overall technological innovation capability of PetroChina's pipe-making and pipeline construction.
In the aspect of large-diameter, high-grade steel pipe and pipe making, 4 categories and 7 new products with independent intellectual property rights have been developed, and domestic industrial production has been successfully realized. Including X80 steel grade diameter 1219 × 18.4 mm spiral submerged arc welded pipe, X80 steel grade diameter 1219 × 22 mm straight seam arc welded pipe, X80 steel grade diameter 1219 × 22 mm, 25.7 mm and 32 mm hot simmering elbow, DN1200 × DN1200×DN1000 (46mm and 52mm) hot-drawn tee fittings, etc. The new product of X80 steel wire flux enables the welding speed to reach 1.7 m/min, which is 30% higher than that of the West-East Gas Pipeline, and the welding qualification rate reaches 98.89%. In terms of pipe fittings and construction technical standards, 16 standards for steel plates, steel pipes, elbows, pipe fittings and large deformation steel pipes and 17 engineering construction technical standards have been researched and formulated for ordering, pipe design, and production of steel pipes for the Second West-East Gas Pipeline Project. and construction provides a scientific basis.
Major breakthroughs have been made in 6 researches including the development of CYW-1422 vertical hydraulic pipe bender and the research on strain-based pipeline design method. Among them, more than 100 X80 steel pipe automatic welding, semi-automatic welding, joint welding, rework welding and other welding processes have been formed, which have strong guiding significance for the welding construction of the second West-East Gas Pipeline Project. In addition, important progress has also been made in 16 areas such as fracture control research, anti-corrosion repairing research, gas storage site selection, integrity management technology research, safety early warning technology research, etc. Provide technical support. PE
Keywords关键词:Significant achievements have been made in the research on the origin of natural gas and the formation mechanism of large gas fields in China; important progress has been made in the research on key technologies of oil and gas exploration and development in the Qaidam Basin; important progress has been made in the research on key technologies of oil and gas exploration and development in the Qaidam Basin; Major progress; a major breakthrough in efficient development technology for ultra-low permeability oilfields supports the rapid production increase of Changqing Oilfield; the application of remote sensing supporting technologies for complex surface seismic engineering has achieved remarkable results in the western region; the integration of multiple drilling technologies has helped PetroChina's annual drilling scale of horizontal wells exceed 1,000 ;Breakthrough progress has been made in the research on the integration of imaging logging, digital core, processing and interpretation; the major breakthroughs in the key technologies of the second West-East Gas Pipeline have strongly supported the construction of the second West-East pipeline.
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Poster发布人: Clark Guo, CCSC Technology, Shanghai, China, 2022.06 Youtube: Clarkwellhead
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